Nobel awarded for using math of shapes to explain exotic matter _ science news

Bagels and pretzels have a lot in common with the physics of certain materials: The snacks illustrated the mathematics behind theoretical descriptions of exotic states of matter, work which won the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics on October 4. E 87 gasoline David Thouless of the University of Washington in Seattle, J. Power outage houston report Michael Kosterlitz of Brown University and Duncan Haldane of Princeton University received the prize for their research, which predicted new types of materials and spurred interest in the field of topological materials.

Many physicists were surprised by the selection; speculation online predicted that the prize would be awarded for the first detection of gravitational waves ( SN: 3/5/16, p. 3 gas laws 6), announced on February 11. 76 gas station hours But the deadline for nominations fell before that date — and researchers typically wait decades for a Nobel nod.

For Thouless, Kosterlitz and Haldane, “this is a deserving recognition,” says M. K gas oroville Zahid Hasan, a physicist at Princeton. Gas efficient suv 2010 “It’s fairly abstract theoretical work. Gas city indiana post office It’s not like finding a new particle, but it’s about how ordinary matter can behave in extraordinary ways.”

The three scientists’ work was united by concepts from topology, a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of shapes. E gaskell north and south In topology, different shapes are distinguished by abrupt transitions. Electricity video ks1 A bagel, for example, is distinct from a cinnamon bun, because the bagel has a single hole, explained Thors Hans Hansson, a physicist at Stockholm University and a member of the Nobel committee, who brought himself a topological lunch for the purposes of demonstration. Wireless electricity how it works And the Swedish style of pretzel, which has two holes, likewise differs from a bagel. Zyklon b gas effects But a bagel and a coffee cup, which each have a single hole, are topological twins — one shape can be gradually morphed into the other without cutting or pasting.

Using concepts from topology, the physicists explored unusual states of matter that occur under extreme conditions, including temperatures near absolute zero, where quantum mechanics becomes important to a material’s behavior. Electricity history united states Such unusual quantum states include superconductors, which conduct electricity without resistance, and superfluids, which flow without friction. Electricity 1 7 pdf The prizewinning research predicted new types of phenomena that appear in two-dimensional sheets of materials or one-dimensional chains of atoms — behaviors that were later observed in the laboratory.

Such developments have led to an explosion of interest in the new types of topological materials, one of the hottest topics in physics ( SN: 5/22/10, p. Electricity generation definition 22). Gas in back relief “Suddenly, people are realizing that topological effects in quantum mechanics are just a tremendously rich subject,” Haldane said in a phone interview during the announcement of the prize. Z gas ensenada He said he was “surprised and very gratified” by the honor.

The winners “certainly were the first people to emphasize the role of topology in physical phenomena,” says experimental physicist Laurens Molenkamp of the University of Würzburg in Germany. Grade 6 electricity test “These are very capable persons who certainly deserve a Nobel Prize.”

Half of the prize of 8 million Swedish kronor (about $934,000) goes to Thouless, with the other half split between Kosterlitz and Haldane. Gas dryer vs electric dryer operating cost All three physicists hail from the United Kingdom: Thouless was born 1934 in Bearsden, Scotland; Haldane was born 1951 in London; and Kosterlitz was born 1942 in Aberdeen, Scotland.

Kosterlitz got the news in a phone call he received while in a parking lot in Finland, where he was traveling. Electricity electricity lyrics “Jesus, that’s incredible,” Kosterlitz remarked during the call, which was posted on the Nobel Prize Facebook page. Electricity generation in india “It just feels a little bit odd getting this news in an underground car park outside Helsinki.”

Thouless and Kosterlitz made discoveries about phase transitions in two-dimensional materials. 5 gases found in the environment While everyone is familiar with certain phase changes — ice melting into water, for example — exotic quantum materials can exhibit different, less intuitive phase transitions, when a material’s properties suddenly shift. Sgas belfast The pair discovered a new phase change called the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Static electricity images At low temperatures, tornado-like vortices of swirling electrons are locked together. Electricity and magnetism worksheets middle school As the temperature is raised, these vortices suddenly separate and travel independently. K electric jobs 2015 This type of phase transition has been seen in the lab in very thin films of superfluid helium and superconductors.

Swirling vortices (arrows) form in a thin layer of material, and are locked into pairs at low temperatures (left). Electricity units calculator in pakistan As the temperature increases, the vortices suddenly split, free to go their own ways. R gasquet This change is known as a topological phase transition.

In 1983, Thouless used topology to explain a mysterious phenomenon that had been observed in the lab, known as the quantum Hall effect. Gas utility cost This effect appears in a thin layer of electrically conductive material, under extreme cold and a high magnetic field. Q gastrobar leblon Under such conditions, the conductivity of the layer, rather than varying gradually, can take on only certain values, which are integer multiples of each other. Gas stoichiometry practice sheet As the magnetic field changes, for example, the conductivity changes, but instead of shifting gradually, it undergoes discrete jumps.

Thouless showed how this effect was related to topology. U save gas station grants pass In the cinnamon bun, bagel and pretzel analogy, each object can have an integer number of holes; there’s no way to add half a hole to the object. Gas x ultra strength during pregnancy The number of holes can’t change smoothly, but only in big leaps — just as the conductivity changes in discrete jumps in the quantum Hall effect. Gas x directions In 1988, Haldane showed that a similar effect can occur even in the absence of a magnetic field.

Haldane also predicted new behavior in chains of atoms. Electricity videos for 4th grade Atoms in the chain each have a quantum property known as spin, which makes them behave like tiny magnets. Haldane showed that a chain of atoms with half-integer spin will act differently than a chain with integer spin.

The trio “laid a foundation for the way that we think about materials and matter,” says Charles Kane of the University of Pennsylvania. Electricity prices by country “From our understanding of the phenomenon of superconductivity to our understanding of the electronic structure of materials, this has profound implications.”

The work has inspired new developments in topological materials. Gas after eating eggs Materials known as topological insulators carry current on their surface, but are insulators inside. Gas station in spanish Potential applications range from quantum computing to new types of computer hard drives ( SN: 8/23/14, p.8), and include materials that could carry light or electrical current without being disrupted by impurities ( SN: 5/18/13, p. Electricity font 8). K electric bill The two-dimensional sheets of carbon known as graphene exhibit topological features as well.

The research has “combined beautiful mathematical and profound physics insights and achieved unexpected results that have been confirmed by experiment,” Hansson said during the Nobel announcement. F gas certification logo “It’s really beautiful and it’s deep.”