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The Province of Ontario’s Nuclear Emergency Response Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E. 9 (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or EMCPA). zyklon b gas effects The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed.

• The Implementing Plans: the elements of the Master Plan are applied to each major nuclear site, transborder emergencies and other types of radiological emergencies, and detailed provincial implementing plans developed. The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans.

• Major Organization Plans : Each major organization involved (provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions, municipalities, and nuclear organizations, etc.) develops its own plan to carry out the relevant roles, responsibilities and tasks agreed to by them and consistent with their mandate. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans.

It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex C, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. Further reference information can be found in the IMS doctrine at Acronyms and Abbreviations

(c) The waterborne pathway would carry tritiated water into the lake (either directly or after draining into the ground), thus creating a potential hazard from the ingestion of radioactively contaminated water or fish. gas after eating red meat Such a liquid release from the TRF shall be dealt with as prescribed in the Provincial Liquid Emission Response Procedure. 2.3 Protective Measures

(a) The Primary Zone for DNGS is shown in Figure 2.3. It includes an area of the Regional Municipality of Durham bounded generally by Taunton Road to the north, Wilmot Creek to the east, and Park Road (RR 54) to the west. The zone extends southward into Lake Ontario to a radius of 10 km from DNGS. The exact boundaries of the zone can be determined from Annex A.

(a) The Secondary Zone encompasses all areas of Durham Region, the City of Toronto, York Region, the City of Kawartha Lakes, Northumberland County and Peterborough County within a 50 km radius of DNGS. The Secondary Zone is shown in Figure 2.4 and includes both the Contiguous and Primary Zones. Figure 2.4 also shows the sub-zones of the Secondary Zone.

The time interval between the occurrence of an accident at DNGS and the commencement of an emission depends on the condition and functioning of the station containment system and on the effectiveness of the actions taken by station operators to delay repressurization of the vacuum structure thus prolonging the holdup of radioactive material within containment:

3.1.1 According to responsibilities under the federal legislation (see PNERP, Master Plan paragraph 5.5.1) and regulations and/or under agreement with the provincial government, the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) shall notify the pre-designated contact points ( paragraph 3.1.6 below) in provincial and municipal emergency organizations as soon as conditions arise at the facility which require such initial notification under the criteria determined in Table 3.1 and, as incorporated in facility procedures.

3.1.3 The form and content of the initial notification shall be determined by the Chief, Emergency Management Ontario. The notification shall always contain the highest applicable category. electricity song In the case of a GENERAL EMERGENCY or ONSITE EMERGENCY notification, the message must state whether an emission is ongoing or if not, give a best estimate of when it is expected to commence and the wind direction at the time of the notification.

3.1.4 Up to four hours after the initial notification, if the assessment of the onsite situation changes to warrant a different category from the one initially notified, DNGS or Ontario Power Generation (OPG) shall immediately make a report of its new assessment to the provincial contact point. electricity laws uk Once ongoing reporting by DNGS/OPG to the Scientific Section of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) is established, there is no longer any requirement for any change in the category to be reported by the nuclear facility staff.

If the PNERP is to be activated (whether fully or partially), the PEOC shall issue an appropriate notification (including an indication of the level of activation) to its staff as well as to the provincial staff of the Emergency Information Section, and to at least one pre-designated contact point in each of the following jurisdictions and organizations:

As soon as possible an evaluation shall be made, by the Scientific Section’s Nuclear Incident Group, of the initiating accident/event and the status of relevant station systems. Based on this, an assessment shall then be made of the likely development of the situation in respect of both positive and negative outcomes. This shall continue as an ongoing process.

Another ongoing assessment process shall deal with the progress of repressurization of the station vacuum structure, leading to continually updated forecasts of the times at which its pressure will reach, firstly, the minimum level required for the Filtered Air Discharge System (FADS) operation and, secondly, the level at which FADS operation becomes necessary.

A technical projection is required of the maximum distance from the nuclear station at which the lower Protective Action Level (PAL) ( see PNERP Master Plan, Annex E) for evacuation is likely to be reached during the anticipated duration of the emission. (Allowance should be made for the effects of early venting, if in fact it will be possible).

The technical assessment of the situation will produce a projection of the maximum distance from DNGS at which the lower PAL for evacuation, sheltering and KI ingestion is likely to be reached during the anticipated duration of the emission. Evaluating this, and taking into account operational and public policy considerations, a preliminary assessment shall be prepared regarding the need to implement these measures and if needed, the ring of response sectors out to which these measure should take place.

This technical assessment and the assessment of the protective measure area shall be continually updated and, as soon as a reasonably certain picture of the evacuation (and other protective measures) distance is achieved, the PEOC, through the Command Section, shall provide directions, regarding the operational directives (or, in the event of a declared emergency, shall advise that such orders have been made) to the designated municipalities, host and support municipalities and the nuclear facility.

4.5.2 For a situation such as paragraph 4.5.1 (a) & (b) there will be an urgent need to take protective measures for the public likely to be affected. It is unlikely that there will be time to assemble adequate information and carry out a detailed assessment. Action shall be taken based on the best information readily available, and according to the guidelines given below:

(b) If the Full Activation response is initiated as a result of an escalation of an event in progress, the sequence of action will be as per paragraph 4.5.2 (a) with the exception being that the operational directives being issued (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advice that such orders have been made) will be based on the ongoing technical assessments of the Scientific Section.

As soon as feasible, the Scientific Section shall make a projection of the maximum distance from the nuclear station at which the lower Protective Action Levels (PALs) for evacuation, sheltering and thyroid blocking are likely to be reached during the anticipated remaining duration of the emission. This assessment will be continually updated, and will be used to decide on additional protective measures (see paragraph 4.5.4 (c) below).

Technical and operational assessments shall be repeated on a continuous basis and additional protective, precautionary and operational measures shall be considered by the PEOC, and implemented as appropriate via operational directive (or, in the event of a declared emergency, shall advise that such orders have been made). (See sections 4.6 – 4.13 for guidance). 4.6 Entry Control

Whenever it is likely that a radioactive emission will take place as the result of an accident/event at DNGS, operational directives should be issued to clear Response Sectors D14 through D16 of boats, (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advise that such orders have been made) and entry control imposed on them through the Canadian Coast Guard and the marine unit of the Durham Regional Police Service.

(e) Emergency plans of the schools in the Primary Zone should provide for the movement of staff and students to pre-arranged host schools and, if necessary, to Monitoring and Decontamination Units for prior monitoring and decontamination. Evacuated students are the responsibility of their school staff until collected from the host school by their guardians/parents.

(f) Emergency plans of hospitals, nursing homes, and other institutions in the Primary Zone should include provisions for the transfer of staff/residents/patients to an appropriate facility outside the Primary Zone, with which prior arrangements have been made. gas in stomach Provisions should also be made to take staff/residents/patients to Monitoring and Decontamination Units, if necessary.

Contiguous Zone: The zone immediately surrounding a nuclear installation. An increased level of emergency planning and preparedness is undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the potential hazard. current electricity examples The actual Contiguous Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant Implementing plans of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan.

Dose: A measure of the radiation received or “absorbed” by a target. The quantities termed absorbed dose, organ dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, committed equivalent dose or committed effective dose are used, depending on the context. The modifying terms are often omitted when they are not necessary for defining the quantity of interest.

Effective (Equivalent) Dose: The sum of the weighted equivalent doses received by the organs and tissues of the body, where the weighted equivalent dose is the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue of the body multiplied by the appropriate weighting factor laid down in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations promulgated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. Expressed in terms of sievert (or rem). See Weighted Dose.

Emergency Workers: A person who assists in connection with an emergency that has been declared by the Lieutenant Governor in Council or the Premier, under of the EMPCA or by the head of council of a municipality under section 4 of the EMCPA. This may include persons who are required to remain in, or to enter, offsite areas affected or likely to be affected by radiation from an accident, and for whom special safety arrangements are required. Examples of emergency workers include police, firefighters, ambulance and personnel from the Canadian Armed Forces, and other essential services. They shall not include nuclear energy workers (pursuant to the Nuclear Safety & Control Act) or assurance (ingestion) monitoring field staff.

Nuclear Establishment: A facility that uses, produces, processes, stores or disposes of a nuclear substance, but does not include a nuclear installation. It includes, where applicable, any land, building, structures or equipment located at or forming part of the facility, and, depending on the context, the management and staff of the facility.

Nuclear Installation: A facility or a vehicle (operating in any media) containing a nuclear fission or fusion reactor (including critical and sub-critical assemblies). It includes, where applicable, any land, buildings, structures or equipment located at or forming part of the facility, and, depending on the context, the management and staff of the facility.

Plume: A cloud of airborne radioactive material that is transported in the direction of the prevailing wind from a nuclear facility. A plume results from a continuing release of radioactive gases or particles. (This term may also be used for waterborne radioactive material resulting from a liquid emission. Where the context does not make it clear, this will be referred to as a Waterborne Plume). ( See also Puff).

Primary Zone: The zone around a nuclear installation within which planning and preparedness is carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. (The Primary Zone includes the Contiguous Zone). electricity outage austin The actual Primary Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant Implementing Plans of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan.

Radiation: In the context of this Plan, radiation means ionizing radiation (i.e. radiation with the potential to harm human tissue or cells produced by a nuclear substance or a nuclear facility. Radiation Exposure Control Measures, Radionuclide (or radioactive isotope or radioisotope): A naturally occurring or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta and/or gamma rays until stability is reached.

Secondary Zone: The zone around a nuclear installation within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures against exposure from the ingestion of radioactive material. (The Secondary Zone includes both the Primary and Contiguous Zones). The actual Secondary Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant site-specific part of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan.