Offshore oil and gas in california – wikipedia hp gas online

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The issue of state versus federal ownership has a long and 76 gas station locations contentious history (see Tidelands). The US Supreme Court ruled in 1947 that the federal government owned all the seabed off the California coast. However, the US Congress passed the Outer Continental Shelf Act in 1953, which recognized state ownership of the seabed within 3 nautical miles (6 km) of the shore. [7]

In some cases, the state granted ownership of offshore seabed to the adjacent municipalities. In this way Long Beach was granted ownership of Long Beach Harbor in 1911 npower electricity bill. When the Wilmington field was discovered, Long Beach contracted with oil companies to produce oil from the city-owned offshore part of the field. [8] Offshore development [ edit ]

Oil production began from a man-made offshore island off Seal Beach in 1953. The first strictly offshore oil field in California was the Belmont Offshore Field, discovered in 1948 1.6 miles (2.6 km) from the shore of Seal Beach; production did not begin until 1954 when a man-made island 9gag memes was built in 40 feet of water for drilling and production equipment. [9]

The Union Oil Company discovered the Dos Cuadras oil field in federal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel in 1968, but success turned to disaster in 1969, when large quantities of oil began escaping to the sea floor near a drilling well in the field. [10] The resulting oil slick came ashore electricity 101 presentation along 35 miles (56 km) of coastline in Santa Barbara County, and turned public opinion against offshore drilling in California. [11] In response to the oil spill, US Secretary of the Interior Walter Hickel removed 53 square miles (140 km 2) of federal tracts near Santa Barbara from oil and gas leasing.

California, like other states, owns gas x breastfeeding side effects and controls the mineral resources within 3 nautical miles (6 km) of the coast. Leasing California state seabed is controlled by the California State Lands Commission, which halted further leasing of state offshore tracts after the Santa Barbara oil spill in 1969. [12] In 1994 the California legislature codified the ban on new leases by passing the California Coastal Sanctuary Act, which electricity definition chemistry prohibited new leasing of state offshore tracts.

The federal government continued to hold offshore lease sales through 1982. [13] Then the US Congress directed that no federal funds be used to lease additional f gas certification logo federal tracts off the coast of California. Congress repeated the moratorium on new leases every year until September 2008, when an appropriations bill passed the House and Senate without the ban; however, no federal lease sales have been proposed for offshore California since the ban was lifted.

A lawsuit by the state of California prevented the federal government from allowing development on 36 federal leases issued before the congressional moratorium. The federal government voided 29 of the contested leases by repaying $1.1 million in lease bonuses; the seven additional gas gangrene federal leases have not been resolved, but gas house edwards remain inactive because of the litigation. The Minerals Management Service estimates that the seven undeveloped leases contain 1,000,000,000 barrels (0.16 km 3) of recoverable oil and 500,000,000,000 cubic feet (14 km 3) of recoverable gas. [14]

Although leasing in state waters has been prohibited since 1994, the law allows exceptions when petroleum under state lands is being drained by nearby wells on non-state tracts; no such exceptions have been made to date. In 2008 both Plains Exploration Production (PXP) and ExxonMobil offered competing proposals to the state to drill wells into Tranquillon Ridge field, offshore Santa Barbara County. The Tranquillon Ridge field lies partly in state and gas lighting urban dictionary partly in federal waters. Neither proposal entailed additional offshore surface structures. Plains proposed to drill wells directionally electricity cost calculator from their existing Irene Platform in federal waters. ExxonMobil proposed to drill directionally from wells onshore in Vandenberg Air Force Base. [15] The Plains Exploration proposal was endorsed by the Environmental Defense Center and by Get Oil Out! [16] [17] On 29 January 2009 the State Lands Commission denied the applications by a 2-1 vote. The reason given for the denial was gas tax by state that approving the lease request would send a message that additional drilling is possible off the California coast. [18]

In July 2009 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger proposed allowing oil production from the state portion of Tranquillon Ridge field, as a way to increase state revenue, which would include a $100 million up-front payment to the state. [19] [20] The provision was defeated in the state legislature. [21] On 3 May 2010, governor national gas average 2007 Schwarzenegger, reacting to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, withdrew his support for the Tranquillon Ridge drilling plan, stating, I see on TV the birds drenched in oil, the fishermen out of work, the massive oil spill and oil slick destroying our precious ecosystem. [22] Current activity [ edit ]