On the shoulders of giants npr electricity notes pdf


DEMBY: Very curious, very curious. So Kaepernick was like, look; I’m going to sue the NFL’s owner, and he’s – his argument was basically that they had colluded to blackball him from getting a job because of those protests. That lawsuit was dragging on for a while, but then out of nowhere, unexpectedly, the league announced that it had settled with Colin Kaepernick and his former teammate, Eric Reid, who was another player who was part of that lawsuit.

We don’t know the terms of that settlement. We don’t know how much was given out to Kaepernick and Reid because they had to sign a nondisclosure agreement. But the standard for proving collusion is real, real high. And there are lots of smart sports people out there who think that the NFL would have only settled if Colin Kaepernick had a really strong case proving that the NFL owners had organized to blackball him. And that settlement was likely for a lot of money.

MERAJI: At the same time Kaepernick was dominating the headlines, women in the WNBA like Maya Moore and Seimone Augustus were speaking out about police shootings of black people. Their team, the Minnesota Lynx, also wore T-shirts that had the names of Philando Castile and Alton Sterling on the back and on the b games car front read change starts with us, justice and accountability.

DEMBY: Black athletes have been using their celebrity to call out injustice like this for basically as long as there have been athletes in America. And on this week’s episode in these final days of Black History Month just under the wire, we’re turning the mic over to a CODE SWITCH alum – Rund Abdelfatah and her co-host, Ramtin Arablouei – to tell us about three athlete activists whose stories deserve to be revisited.

ZIRIN: So Jack Johnson, as a young man hanging out on the docks in Galveston, he met people from all over the world – from the Middle East. He’s meeting people from sub-Saharan Africa. He’s meeting people from all over Europe. And – you know, and he was an – almost a curio to them, this entertaining person national gas average 2007 because oftentimes, the sailors would be involved with the kids because they would ask the kids to fight each other. Johnson was – even as a boy, was the best at doing that.

UNIDENTIFIED NARRATOR: Here in round 14, Johnson rushes in, lands an uppercut, three left hooks – a tremendous barrage of punches – lefts and rights, which have Burns helpless. At this very moment, in the early seconds of round 14, the police shut off the motion picture cameras and stepped into the ring, awarding the heavyweight championship of the world to Jack Johnson.

DAVIS: There’s this idea that the whole community is invested on this. And you can see this also reflected in newspaper headlines, this idea that if Johnson wins, the negroes around the country are going to riot. They’re going to revolt. They’re going to get the idea that they can fight back. They’re going to get the idea that they’re not inferior.

ABDELFATAH: Yeah. She was a superstar athlete in the 1960s. But the part of her story that’s most interesting is what would come after her Olympic fame, the part that’s always left out, mostly because she was a woman. And I want to make the case that she deserves recognition as one of the black athlete activists on that line of ascension that Harry Edwards talked about.

DAVIS: She describes pass gas in spanish leaving on the jet plane, you know, this amazing moment where she’s thinking, how far will I go? Where am I going to end up? And she’s looking down. It’s the first time she’s been on an airplane. They stop and refuel in Hawaii, and she has this really formative experience at seeing palm trees. They go to Guam, and she has this experience about being around dark-skinned people who don’t speak English.

ABDELFATAH: All right. So now Wilma is a superstar. But none of this is happening in a vacuum, right? This is the era of the Cold War and the civil rights movement. And all sports, especially Olympic sports, had some Cold War elements sort of ingrained in them, using athletes as pawns to project strength, sort of like a sports arms race. Except the big difference was Americans didn’t have big government sports programs like the Soviets. Yet…

ABDELFATAH: So in 1963, Wilma Rudolph is appointed as a goodwill ambassador for the United States. And she’s sent around the world basically marketing the U.S. to countries that were under threat of influence from the Soviet Union, which is incredibly ironic because meanwhile, she’s a black woman who faces serious discrimination at home in the U.S.

ABDELFATAH: And this experience, seeing the aftermath of colonialism and political resistance movements electricity kwh usage calculator outside of the U.S., this moves her to action. Just weeks after she comes back from the trip, she gets involved. She joins a protest to integrate restaurants in her hometown. She was now an active participant in the civil rights movement.

ABDELFATAH: I mean, why would you hear about it? The media kind of didn’t cover this change in her. They just ignored it. Like, I looked for news stories about this time, and there was practically nothing, especially in mainstream media. And so her career kind of fizzled out at that point. She didn’t get the kind of endorsements or media presence that other athletes were getting. And it was a really big change because, remember, she was superstar Beyonce status just a few years earlier. And now she couldn’t find work or make a living.

ABDELFATAH: Actually, that’s also a really interesting part of the story because her voice wasn’t even amplified like Muhammad Ali, for example, who made a very public turn from Cassius Clay to Muhammad Ali around the same time, right? He got political and managed to remain in the spotlight. But it seems like the image of Wilma Rudolph as an activist was just too hard for the American media to swallow.

DAVIS: The back third of her memoir is reflections and feelings of dissatisfaction. And I think the most damning thing that she says is she reflects on the fact that when – remember I said she was on that jet plane in ’56, and as a 16-year-old said, where am I going to end up? Where am I going to be going, soaring to new heights? And by the end of her memoir – this is going to be in the late ’70s – she’s in a place where she’s back in Clarksville, Tenn. And she says to herself, I used to think, where was I going to end up? And never in my wildest dreams did I think I’d be right back here in Clarksville, Tenn.

ABDELFATAH: Pretty much. But what I think is really important to remember is that Wilma Rudolph should absolutely be counted as one of the activist athletes who set the path for those who came after, even if she wasn’t as outspoken about it as, say, Muhammad Ali and even if her protests were largely written out of history because I think women athletes are often forgotten in this narrative, especially when you consider the environment for women athletes in the 1960s. You know, if you remember, everyone wanted to say that she was beautiful and demure and this star athlete. They just kind of ignored her deeper, more challenging thoughts and actions. And so I really think it’s unfair that Wilma Rudolph is forgotten as one of the athlete activists of her era.

ARABLOUEI: I know, and I will deliver it. But I promise this will be worth it because to really understand the way people reacted to Rauf not standing for the national anthem or his comments, we really have to understand the era he was in, the 1980s and ’90s. So this period marks the wikipedia electricity consumption beginning of professional sports becoming the massive, lucrative industries we see today. And this happened during a period of rapid globalization.

ARABLOUEI: Yeah, it was pretty much the opposite of the 1960s in a lot of ways. But there’s also, like, a crazy irony here, which is that all the work that was a gas is a form of matter that done by athlete activists in the 1960s kind of opened up the path for athletes like Michael Jordan, for example, to make all the money that he made. But then when they made all that money and it became a high-stakes kind of money game, then athletes were kind of afraid to be outspoken.

ABDUL-RAUF: They started to slowly just erase me from the books. So my minutes began to decline – got less minutes. First time in my career I got DNP – did not play – because of the coach’s decision. I got a lot of those. And so after that, after those years were up, I just – you know, I’m done. You know, I’m done. I’m tired of the politics of it. I’m going home.

ARABLOUEI: The difference is that Kaepernick has had support from other athletes, from Nike, and Rauf was kind of left out to dry. He career was essentially ruined. But I think the lesson is the same, which is that often when black athletes speak out or do anything provocative, they’re basically gambling their entire careers, their future, their livelihood.

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