Origins of hamspeak, cq, 73, dx, etc. power outage houston reliant


The definition of 73 changed yet again to a very flowery accept my compliments. gas in dogs symptoms From 1859 to 1900 the many telegraphic manuals show variations of this meaning. Each major telegraph and railway company had its own distinctive telegraphic codes. electricity in india Since there was no agreed standard all were different and, as a consequence, there was much confusion in communicating with different networks.

Telegraphists, included abbreviations RA to RZ and SA to SF. The next International Radiotelegraphic Convention, held in London in July 1912, adopted and extended the GPO abbreviations. 3 gas laws Q was added as the first letter and so the Q code was born. The new code now ran from QRA to QRZ and QSA to QSX. z gas station On 1st July 1913 the Q code finally became an official international information code, updated as changing circumstances demanded to include new codes relating to such matters as aviation and maritime.

morse operating at speeds of typically 120wpm. Widely used by many countries, including Germany, the Q code and Z code continued in use throughout the war. After the war high-speed morse became less widely used and was replaced by other forms of traffic communication such as RTTY and facsimile. electricity word search pdf The Z code, therefore, gradually went out of fashion and slowly disappeared. Examples of the Z code include ZAA you are not observing circuit discipline, ZAN we can receive absolutely nothing, ZST send slips twice, ZAP acknowledge please and there were lots of others.

Operating during the 1930s and early 40s, at the same time as the Z and Q codes, was the X code, then in use by European military services as a wireless telegraphy code. This consisted of the letter X followed by a number. For example X34 meant your morse is bad, X50 your morse is good, X100 affirmative, X112 interrogative, X279 what is the strength of my signal? X496/257 I am winding in my aerial prior to landing/i have nothing further for you.

So the Q code became the standard international military and civil telegraphic letter code used in CW communication. (Sometimes, incorrectly, even in R/T). Published as an operators’ manual, there are separate sections available to deal with various areas of communication. Some less well known examples of the Q code used by base stations of the British Army included QAU followed by QHU,meaning I am waterlogged, I am about to jettison fuel; AS5 generally followed! Even less well known is QGG send the pony by the next train.

understood’ in response to radio communications; later it came into general use to mean ‘all right, OK.’ Roger was the radio communications morse code word for the letter R, which in this case represented the word ‘received.’ ‘Roger Wilco’ was the reply to ‘Roger’ from the original transmitter of the radio message, meaning ‘I have received your message that you have received my message and am signing off.” Wilco implies "I will comply"

there- Done That". "Roger" in both military and government communications definitely came out of the old cw days (and yes I did send/receive cw messages at the beginning of my career). The "R" was sent as a confirmation of receipt of a message,or a portion of a message. "R" was used, not "QSL". gas news in hindi In voice communications , it thus became "Roger".