Oxygen – simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia electricity billy elliot chords


Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is part of the chalcogen group on the periodic table. It is a very reactive nonmetal. It also makes oxides with many elements. It is the third-most common element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. When alone, two oxygen atoms usually bind to make dioxygen (O 2), a colourless gas. It has no taste or smell. It is a pale blue as a liquid and solid. Dioxygen gas makes up 20.8% of the Earth’s atmosphere. Oxides make up nearly half of the Earth’s crust.

Dioxygen is used in respiration in most life on Earth. Many organic molecules in living things have oxygen in them, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and fats. Oxygen is a part of water, which all known life needs to live. Plants make the Earth’s dioxygen by photosynthesis, using the Sun’s light to separate oxygen from water and carbon dioxide chapter 7 electricity test. Ozone (O 3) is at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere in the ozone layer and protects life on Earth from static electricity online games dangerous ultraviolet radiation.

Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604. It is often thought that the element was discovered by either Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Sweden, in 1773, or Joseph Priestley, in England, in 1774. Priestly is usually thought to be the main discoverer because his work was published first, even though he called it dephlogisticated air, and did not think it was a chemical element. Antoine Lavoisier came up with the name oxygen in 1777 and was the first person to say it was a chemical element. He was also right about how it helps combustion work.

One of the first known experiments on how combustion needs air was carried out by Greek Philo of Byzantium in the 2nd centure BCE. He wrote in his work Pneumatica that turning a vessel upside down over a burning candle and putting water around this vessel meant that some water went into the vessel. [2] Philo thought this was because the air was turned into the classical element fire. This was wrong. A long time after, Leonardo da Vinci correctly worked out that air was used up when combustion happened, which forced water into the vessel.. [3]

In the late 17th century, Robery Boyle found that air is needed for combustion. English chemist John Mayow added to this by showing that fire only needed a part of air. He called c gastronomie mariage this spiritus nitroaereus, which we now call dioxygen. [4] In one of his experiments, he found that putting a candle in a closed container made the water rise to replace one-fourteenth of the air’s volume in the container, before going out. [5] The same thing happened when a mouse was put into the box. From this, he worked out that nitroaereus is used for respiration and combustion.

J. J. Becher came up with it in the year 1667, and Georg Ernst Stahl added to it in 1731. [8]The phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts. One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. [3]

Polish shale gas in spanish alchemist, philosopher and physician Michael Sendivogius spoke about a substance in air, calling it the food of life. [9], and this substance is the same as oxygen. [10] Sendivogius found, between the years 1598 and 1604, that the substance is the same as what is made during the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate. Some people believe this was the discovery of oxygen while others disagree.

On 1 August 1774, an experiment carried out by British clergyman Joseph electricity trading hubs Priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide in a glass tube. This made a gas he called dephlogisticated air. [12] He also found that candles burned brighter in the gas and mouses lived longer while breathing it. When he breathed the gas, he said (simplified) It felt like normal air, but my lungs felt lighter and easy afterwards. [6] His findings were published in 1775. [3] [14] Because his findings were published first, he is usually said to be the discoverer of oxygen.

In one experiment, Lavoisier found that there was no increase in mass when tin and air were heated in a closed container. He also found that air rushed in when the container was opened. After this, he found that the tin had increased in mass by the same amount as the air that rushed in. He published his findings in 1777. [12] He wrote that air was made up of to gases. One he called vital air (oxygen), which is needed for combustion and respiration. The other he called azote ( nitrogen), which means lifeless in Greek language. This is still the name of nitrogen in some languages, including French. [12]

John Dalton’s theory of atoms said that all elements had one atom and gas vs electric water heater savings atoms in compounds were usually alone. For example, he wrongly thought that water (H 2O) had the formula of just HO. [17] In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. By 1811, Amedeo Avogadro correctly worked out what water was made of based on Avogadro’s law. [18]

By the late 19th century, scientists found that air could be turned into a liquid and the compounds in it could be isolated by compressing and cooling it. Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pictet discovered liquid oxygen by evaporating sulfur dioxide to turn carbon dioxide into a liquid. This was then also evaporated to cool oxygen gas in order to turn it into a liquid. He sent a telegram to the French Academy of Sciences on 22 December 1877 telling them of his discovery. [19] Characteristics [ edit | change source ] Properties and molecular structure [ edit | change source ]

As dioxygen, two oxygen atoms are chemically bound to each other. This bond can be called many things, but simply called a covalent double bond. Dioxygen is very reactive and can react with many other elements. Oxides are made when metal elements react with dioxygen, such as iron oxide, which is known as rust. There are a lot of oxide compounds on Earth.

Ozone (O 3) is very reactive and damages the lungs when breathed e gaskell north and south in. [22] Ozone is made in the upper atmosphere when O 2 combines with pure oxygen made when gas x dosage for dogs O 2 is split by ultraviolet radiation. [15] Ozone absorbs a lot of radiation in the UV part of the electromagnetic spectrum and so the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere protects Earth from radiation.

Oxygen dissolves more easily from air into water than nitrogen does. When there is the same amount of air and water, there is one molecule of O 2 for every 2 molecules of N 2 (a ratio of 1:2). This is different to air, where there is a 1:4 ratio of oxygen to nitrogen. It is also easier for O 2 to dissolve in freshwater than in seawater. [6] [25] Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (-182.95° C, -297.31 ° F) and freezes at 54.36 K (-218.79 °C, -361.82°F). [26] Both liquid and solid O 2 are see-through with a light-blue colour.

Oxygen is the most common element by mass on Earth. It is the third most common element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. [30] About 0.9% of the Sun’s mass is oxygen. [12] Oxygen makes up 49.2% of the Earth’s crust by mass [31] as part of oxide compounds like silicon dioxide. It is also the main part of the Earth’s oceans, making up 88.8% by mass. Oxygen gas is the second most common part of the atmosphere, making up 20.8% of its mass and 23.1% of its volume. Earth is strange compared to other known planets, as a large amount of its atmosphere is oxygen gas. Mars has 0.1% O 2 by volume with the rest of the Solar System’s planet’s having less than that.

The high amount of oxygen gas on Earth is because of the oxygen cycle. This is mainly controlled by photosynthesis, which makes oxygen gas from carbon dioxide, water and the Sun’s energy. Respiration then takes the oxygen gas out of the atmosphere and turns it back into carbon dioxide and water. This happens at the same rate, so the electricity grid code amount of oxygen gas and carbon dioxide doesn’t change because of it. [32]