Pardon me, turkey, is this stool taken scientists turn poultry poop into fuel mpr news gas efficient suv 2013

########

The team started with poultry feces because it was an abundant and promising material. electricity prices over time Annually, the world’s poultry dishes out from 625 to 938 million metric tons of poop, which is high in carbon and nitrogen — the chemical elements needed for energy generation. Compared to cow manure, which is usually spread out over pastures, chicken and turkey waste is easier to obtain and handle because it’s concentrated in smaller areas.

So the scientists gathered some poultry droppings, ground them manually with a mortar and pestle, then put them into autoclaves (heated, high-pressure containers), simulating conditions for the natural formation of coal. They experimented with different temperatures and techniques, compared the outcomes, and outlined the most efficient "recipes."

In the first approach, the droppings are heated at 842 degrees Fahrenheit without oxygen. gas zeta costa rica That yields what scientists call biochar — carbonized biomass remains that are akin to coal, with similar combustion properties. electricity word search answer key However, roasting at such a high temperature requires a lot of energy, and therefore isn’t the most efficient fuel production method.

So the team tried cooking the feces wet, at a lower temperature of 482 degrees Fahrenheit, but higher pressure — think stewed in a pressure cooker. That recipe produced hydrochar — a brownish slurry of burnt biomass particles and water. electricity sources uk That slurry has a double use. The particles can be separated into a coal-like powder, while the liquid can be used as a safe organic fertilizer, since no pathogens can survive the cooking.

The scientists published their "recipes" and energy comparisons in the journal Applied Energy, stating that as global poultry production continues to grow, its fecal byproduct may help offset some of the world’s energy needs. When converted to combustible biomass fuel, it could replace approximately 10 percent of the coal used in electricity generation, reduce greenhouse gases and provide an alternative and renewable energy source, says Vivian Mau, one of the project’s researchers.

Poultry-made hydrochar powder is a perfect fit for electricity production — and can be fueling generators now, Mau says. electricity resistance questions Making this work on an industrial level will take some scaling up, but the team doesn’t foresee any engineering problems. Moreover, some furnaces pulverize coal for better combustion, so having the fuel already in powder form rather than lumps is an advantage. "This powder can go straight to the power plants and be loaded into the furnace," Mau says. "And it can also be made into briquettes," she adds, which can be used as charcoal for heating and cooking food.

This leads to a curious question: Can Thanksgiving turkeys be roasted using their own carbonized excrement? In theory it’s possible. Over its lifetime, a bird generates enough dung for roasting. "In rough calculations it produces twice the amount," says Mau, "but then it can get interesting if we want to compare different cooking methods, recipes, stuffings, etc." So in scientific and recycling terms it makes sense, but the yuck factor is a different story.