Physics and science physics and science electricity distribution costs

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Dark energy is a catch-all term that scientists coined to describe whatever seems to be pushing the bounds of the universe farther and farther apart. If gravity were the only force choreographing the interstellar ballet of stars and galaxies, then—after the initial grand jeté of all of the matter and energy in the universe during the big bang—every celestial body would slowly chassé back to a central point. But that’s not what’s happening grade 9 electricity module. Instead, the universe continues to drift apart—and it’s happening at an accelerating rate.

But many theorists suspect that dark energy is a new type of force or field—something that changes how gravity works. And if this is true, then scientists might be able to put just the right amount of energy into that field to pop out a particle, a particle that could potentially show up in a detector at the LHC. This is the way scientists discovered the Higgs field, by interacting with it in just the right way for it to produce a Higgs boson.

The ATLAS and CMS experiments, the big general-purpose experiments at the LHC, search for new fundamental forces and properties of nature by recording what happens when the LHC smashes together protons at just under the electricity bill cost speed of light. The giant detectors surround the collision points and map the energy and matter released from the collisions, giving scientists a unique view of the clandestine threads that weave together to build everything in the universe.

With this simple model easily eliminated, they decided to take on another idea with a more cryptic signature. They knew that more complex analyses would require the expertise of an experimentalist. So in April 2016, along with Michael Spannowsky of Durham University in the UK, they published a new hypothesis in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters—and waited.

According to this new theory, dark energy particles should radiate off of energetic top quarks and show up in the detector as missing energy. Argyropoulos and his colleagues went through ATLAS analyses of top quarks and, in a separate search, looked at certain other collisions to see if any of them showed the signatures they were looking for. They did not.

The two have collaborated on many delicious science-y desserts, including an elaborate ATLAS detector cake, Standard Model cupcakes, Feynman diagram cookies, and treats they call “Schrödinger’s Kit Kat,” cake-like confections with bits of Kit Kats embedded in half of them, mirroring Schrödinger’s cat-in-a-box thought experiment that demonstrates the quantum phenomenon of superposition.

Grimm gas jewelry remembers using “proton cookies” to teach a group of Girl Scouts about particle physics. She instructed them to coat graham crackers with frosting electricity videos for students, which represents gluons, and three MMs, representing the quarks. The girls then smashed the cookies together, showing what happens at the Large Hadron Collider. Eating the cookies, Grimm explains, demonstrates the role of particle detectors in these experiments.

A good physics cake depends on the audience, Grimm says. People in the particle physics community tend to enjoy the more complex cakes. But for outreach, the cake should be simple so that people are able to understand it instead of getting bogged down by complicated details. Leney adds that her favorite cakes are the ones that allow people to learn about physics. Taking whisks

When experiments are shut down, “the vultures come knocking at your door,” jokes Jonathan Lewis, deputy head of the particle physics division at Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. He was in charge of decommissioning the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in 2011. “You try to get the word out, but people in the community know what experiments are electricity and magnetism worksheets 5th grade being shut down. They start to look to see what’s available.” Shipping magnets around the world

Take, for example, the UA1 experiment magnet. Originally built in 1979, it was part of a particle detector at CERN that discovered the W and Z bosons. After that experiment shut down in 1990, it was used in the NOMAD neutrino experiment from 1995 to 1998. But then it sat outside at CERN, rusting a bit and waiting for its next home, which would ultimately be the T2K neutrino experiment in Japan.

“Even with the amount of work needed to refurbish it, and the cost of transporting it, it was still worthwhile to reuse it,” says Chang Kee Jung, US principal investigator for the experiment and professor at Stony Brook University. “Usually when you are using old equipment, it’s like driving a used car. The parts aren’t new, so it will break down more often, and you will have more maintenance costs electricity nyc. But magnets generally have much longer lifetimes than other devices, since they are rather simple equipment.”

Magnet reuse is common—even magnets from MRI scanners have been reused in physics experiments—but their special transportation often makes headlines. In 1979, Argonne National Laboratory sent a 107-ton superconducting magnet to what is now called SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Jung recalls stories about local news stations reporting on its 20-day journey via a special tractor-trailer, which took up two lanes of interstate highway while traveling 25 miles per hour. The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois uses a giant magnet transported 3200 miles by land and sea from its original home at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. (That trip even had its own hashtag: #bigmove.)

Sometimes, entire detectors are absorbed from one experiment to another. That was the case with ICARUS, the first large-scale time projection liquid-argon neutrino detector. It started out at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy to look for neutrino oscillations over a long baseline, then was transported to CERN for refurbishment and then to Fermilab in 2017. There, it will join the lab’s program gas constant in kj to search for sterile neutrinos, which could help solve questions about the origin of our universe. The detector survived a complex journey, traveling thousands of miles via truck and barge. (Hashtag: #IcarusTrip.)

Physicist Angela Fava transferred labs along with the experiment. Fava worked with the detector in graduate school and is helping to install it at Fermilab as part of a trio of experiments in the Short-Baseline Neutrino program. In Italy, the detector found only a couple neutrino interactions per day; in its new role, it will likely detect that amount every minute. Fava says it is up for the challenge.

Physics experiments don’t just reuse their own equipment—they also often give second lives to non-scientific facilities and resources. Old mines, with their hollowed-out underground sites gas density calculator shielded from cosmic rays, have been the sites of countless physics experiments. The Homestake Mine in South Dakota houses several experiments, including the Majorana Demonstrator, LUX dark matter experiment, and the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. The Mozumi Mine in Japan has been home to many experiments, including the Super-Kamiokande, and a set electricity jeopardy game of experiments (KamiokaNDE, KamLAND, and KamLAND-Zen) that have all re-used the same neutrino detector.

And the CDF experiment, which studied high energy proton-antiproton collisions at Fermilab’s Tevatron collider, was partially constructed using steel from decommissioned battleships. That experiment ultimately paid it forward by disassembling and sharing a long list of experimental equipment after it was shut down in 2011. Lewis can cite where everything went: phototubes to India, electronics to Italy, computer servers to South Korea. Here in the United States, Brookhaven National Laboratory and Jefferson Lab got hundreds of phototubes for nuclear physics experiments, and 1000 tons of the old battleship steel will be used as shielding for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility target.

That’s the case for DZero, the other experiment on the Tevatron at Fermilab that ran from 1992 to 2011. In its heyday, the experiment revealed particles like the top quark. Though it shut down soon after the start of the Large Hadron Collider, scientists have data from about 10 billion events that still have a story to tell. Dozens of papers from that data have been published in the last six years.

“They are probably not Nobel Prize-winning measurements, but they are very important for understanding specific areas in particle physics,” says Dmitri Denisov, a distinguished scientist at Fermilab and spokesperson for the DZero experiment. For example, the j gastroenterol hepatol impact factor data has been important in searching for exotic particles, a field that did not become popular until after the Tevatron shut down. From experiment to education