Plastic pollution facts and figures – beachapedia gas in texas

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As new research on the production, life cycle, and impacts of plastic debris become available, Surfrider Foundation continues to assemble this list of credible plastic pollution statistics and figures, sourced mainly from peer-reviewed, published studies. Though many of the figures are estimates, their approved calculation methodologies are provided in the cited literature.

The more we learn, the more it becomes clear that the issue of marine and coastal plastic pollution is severe and widespread. Fortunately, the education and engagement of passionate coastal defenders, citizens, and community members can help stop the flow of plastic at the source, by switching to reusables and supporting legislation that bans the production and use of single-use plastic.

• In 2015, about 730,000 tons of high density poly-ethylene (HDPE) plastic "bags, sacks and wraps" were generated in the United States, but only 5.5% of this total was recycled. electricity transmission vs distribution In total, 4.1 million tons of plastic "bags, sacks, and wraps" were generated (including PS, PP, HDPE, PVC, & LDPE) with a recycling rate of just 12.8% [6] With an average weight of 5.3 grams, that’s over 126 billion plastic grocery bags (HDPE bags) produced in the US in 2015. electricity omd Using the 2015 US population of 321 million people, that’s an average of 390 bags used per US resident, annually.

• As established by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, over 10,000 chemicals are legally allowed to come into contact with food in the US, including being added directly to recipes or indirectly by being added to food storage vessels. 1,000 of these chemicals are not FDA approved, but are determined to be "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). [8]

• Researchers found that 80 percent of seabird species that spend most of their time at sea (of the order Procellariformes), which include petrels, albatross, and shearwaters, have plastic in their stomaches. [35] [36] [37] This means that they are likely regurgitating plastic into chicks when feeding, reducing the amount of essential nutrients needed for successful development.

• In Indonesia, anthropogenic (human caused) debris was found in 28% of individual fish and in 55% of all species. Similarly, in California, anthropogenic debris was found in 25% of individual fish and in 67% of all species. All of the anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in Indonesia was plastic, whereas anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in the USA was primarily fibers. [44]

• The US recycling collection rate of plastic bottles is less than 30% (29.7%), which translates to roughly 6.88 billion plastic bottles that were littered or went into a landfill in 2016. Additionally, only 3 of the 7 types of resins used for plastic bottles are readily recyclable due to economic returns. electricity number PET and HDPE are the most commonly recycled and used plastic resins (jointly account for 98% of recycled plastic bottles), followed by PP (1.3%). [50]

• Crab shells & cellulose: PET is one of the most common plastics used for packaging. Scientists have recently developed a new alternative to PET made completely from natural, renewable, low impact ingredients including chitin (crab shells) and tree material (cellulose). Initial tests are showing that this new substance is actually more effective than PET at sealing goods and preventing oxygen exposure. [51]

• Milk protein: Casein, a protein extracted from cow’s milk, has been shown in studies as a promising – if limited – alternative to low-density plastics (thin plastics like plastic bags). Casein is not very strong in and of itself as water can wash it away. power outage houston txu Unfortunately, in one study, clay and formaldehyde were needed to strengthen its bonds. [53]

• Chicken feathers: Chicken feathers are composed almost entirely of keratin, the same protein found in human hair and fingernails. electricity 4th grade powerpoint Although many researchers have experimented over the years with keratin as a plastic-alternative, keratin falls apart easily when wet, and therefore hasn’t held much promise as a viable alternative. A 2011 study claims to have found a way. Unfortunately, to add strength to keratin’s bonds, a plasticizer called methyl acrylate (found in nail polish) had to be added. [54]

• Liquid wood: A company in Germany is manufacturing toys and other hard plastic materials out of pulp-based lignin, a by-product of the papermaking process. The discarded lignin is mixed with fibers and wax to create a product that has the “high stability and good acoustical properties of wood with the injection-molded capabilities of plastic.” To date, they’ve used the liquid wood material to make toys, golf tees, and speaker boxes. [55]

• Seaweed sachets: A company in England is developing edible packaging made of seaweed. "Customers can eat the packaging — which has a slightly chewy texture, but little taste — or throw it away and it will biodegrade in about six weeks." As a trial, the creators are selling "juice shots" at a Department store in London, and have sold alcoholic drinks in these edible "cherry tomato-like" seaweed balls at festivals. Learn more here.

• ↑ 2015-2025 projection of plastics in the ocean based on an estimated stock of 150 million tonnes in 2015 (Ocean Conservancy and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment, Stemming the Tide (2015)), estimated annual leakage rates of plastics into the ocean by Jambeck et al. of 8 million tonnes in 2010 and 9.1 million tonnes in 2015 (J. R. Jambeck et al., Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean (Science, 2015), taken from the middle scenario), and annual growth in leakage flows of plastics into the ocean of 5% up to 2025 (conservatively taken below the 6.8% annual growth rate in ocean plastics leakage into the ocean between 2015 and 2025 as estimated in Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, middle scenario). 2025-2050 projections based on a plastics leakage into the ocean growth rate of 3.5% p.a., in line with long-term GDP growth estimates (International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2015 (2015))

• ↑ Ruilong Li, Huadong Tan, Linlin Zhang, Shaopeng Wang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu, The implications of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) on the sorption of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 156, 30 July 2018, Pages 176-182, ISSN 0147-6513.

• ↑ Ocean Conservancy. 2018. e payment electricity bill bangalore California Coastal Cleanup Day – Litter Data Summary 2010 – 2017. Trash Information and Data for Education and Solutions (TIDES) and International Coastal Cleanup Data Collection & Reporting Tool. PDF available at https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54d3a62be4b068e9347ca880/t/5a0237d7652deae895d2df1c/1510094808473/California+Coastal+Cleanup+Data+2010.2016.2017.pdf.