Plug-in hybrids (or plugin hybrids) grade 6 science electricity test


For people looking for the most effective way to end our addiction to oil, PHEVs have made sense because carmakers can build them now, with today’s technology and using today’s infrastructure. But they’ve needed definitive proof that PHEVs won’t increase pollution. The main study shows that under all nine scenarios for both rates of market penetration of PHEVs and the evolving power grid’s characteristics (capacity/carbon intensity), PHEVs will vastly reduce greenhouse gases for the next 40 years. electricity facts for 4th graders In the second study, for the next 20 years, even if, worst-case, we still use lots of coal, nationwide air quality for other emissions will also improve.

Three more points: Both reports match up well with previous studies. They reinforce the Pacific National Lab’s January 2007 findings that we won’t have to build new power plants for cars that charge at night. And we’re gratified that General Motors recognizes this study as validation of its decision to evolve to the electrification of transportation.

The "well-to-wheel" emissions of electric vehicles are lower than those from gasoline internal combustion vehicles. California Air Resources Board studies show that battery electric vehicles emit at least 67% lower greenhouse gases than gasoline cars — even more assuming renewables. A PHEV with only a 20-mile all-electric range is 62% lower (see printed page 95 in the 2004 study).

Nationally, two government studies have found PHEVs would result in large reductions even on the national grid (50% coal). The GREET 1.6 model in 2001 by the DOE’s Argonne National Lab estimates hybrids reduce greenhouse gases by 22%, and plug-in hybrids by 36% (see table 2). An Argonne researcher reached consensus with researchers from other national labs, universities, the Air Resources Board, automakers, utilities and AD Little to estimate in July 2002 that PHEVs using nighttime power reduce greenhouse gases by 46 to 61 percent.

Only PHEVs and battery EVs get cleaner as they get older – because the electric grid gets cleaner every decade. gas stoichiometry problems Plus more people are installing rooftop solar photovoltaic systems, and clean wind power is vastly expanding nationally (see study by eminent environmentalist Lester Brown cited at CalCars Kudos). Finally, looking at the non-electric fuel, instead of using gasoline for long-trips, PHEVs could run on bio-diesel, cellulose ethanol, or other bio-fuels to further reduce greenhouse gases.

We say above that you can fill up your "electric tank" for less than $1/gallon. How? Using the average U.S. electricity rate of 9 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), 30 miles of electric driving will cost 81 cents. If we optimistically assume the average US fuel economy is 25 miles per gallon, at $3.00 gasoline this equates to 75 cents a gallon for equivalent electricity. Compared to a regular hybrid’s real-world 45 miles per gallon, it’s effectively $1.20/gallon.

PHEVs are meant to plug-in at night. In many areas of the country, overnight power is available at a lower cost. As PHEVs start to enter the marketplace, we’ll see increasing support from electric utilities, as they’ll offer reduced nighttime rates to incentivize off-peak charging. austin electricity outage In some areas where wind and hydropower is wasted at night, the rate can be as low as 2-3 cents per kWh. That’s 20-25 cents a gallon.

Cost increments for a plug-in hybrid compact vehicle will be 10-20% more than a regular hybrid: $2000-3000 extra for a sedan; $5000 for an SUV. CalCars’ mission is to narrow the cost gap through incentives, subsidies and rebates while making the case for paying extra to gain access to car-pool lanes, spend less time at gas stations, get home backup power, lower maintenance costs, and, most importantly, benefit society by reducing oil imports, greenhouse gases and pollution.

People routinely pay more for such options as sunroofs, automatic transmissions, V8 engines and leather seats. These are "features" — and no one asks about the payback. A JD Power survey shows buyers will pay more for cars with the "environmental feature." How much more? The high demand for the Honda Civic hybrid tell us it’s at least $3,000.

We use this section to track existing plug-in hybrids, to prove definitively that PHEVs rely exclusively on existing technology — no new advances are required. PHEV conversions are emerging at a frenzied rate (see the frequency of CalCars-News postings), to the point where it’s no longer feasible to track every instance of a PHEV. electricity of the heart See What Carmakers Say about PHEVs for the latest. In short:

• Many automakers have built PHEVs in private workshops, and DaimlerChrysler has publicly tested PHEV prototypes. They are converting up to 40 15-passenger Mercedes commercial vans into PHEVs, with some vehicles using NiMH and others advanced lithium-ion batteries, plus diesel and gasoline engines. The program is in cooperation with California’s Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Southern California Edison. See the press release, EPRI announcement and Daimler’s description (with graphics).

• The advanced hybrid vehicle research center at University of California-Davis (founded and directed by the modern inventor of the PHEV, CalCars advisor Prof. Andy Frank) has converted nine sedans and SUVs into PHEVs that have repeatedly won prizes in US Energy Department-sponsored "FutureTruck" competitions. Dr. Frank, widely known as the "Father of the Plug-In Hybrid," has been working on PHEVs for thirty years, and building them with students for more than a decade.

• In 2003-04, the US Marine Corps demonstrated a diesel-electric PHEV-20 HUMVEE. (The military likes the silent, zero-heat "footprint" in all-electric mode, and appreciates saving fuel that can cost well over $100/gallon to deliver to front lines.) This advanced Shadow RST-V (Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting Vehicle) PHEV, built by General Dynamics, uses lightweight lithium-ion batteries and motors in four wheel hubs. ag gaston birmingham 120 See details and photos and more descriptions.

• Several companies are building plug-in hybrid schoolbuses (see bottom of page at Where-PHEVs-Are). And Long Island, NY has converted a city bus to a plug in hybrid with 40 miles of all-electric range. Many more heavy-duty vehicle conversions (including three recycling dump-trucks that will run in "silent" mode for pickups) are in progress.