Policy recommendations to reduce non-point pollution from crop production in china-the english version_中国网 gas 37 weeks pregnant

China is rapidly moving towards the situation in many developed countries where agriculture has become the main source of water pollution. Hp gas online booking mobile number The pollution control measures introduced by the State Council and SEPA are progressively limiting pollution from the industrial sector and steps are now being taken to overcome the lack of urban sewage treatment. Gas prices in texas These measures will be strengthened by actions to promote the concept of the circular economy in the industrial sector leading to greater recycling of inputs and by-products. Gas efficient cars 2012 Consequently in the coming years point source pollution from urban and industrial waste will be a declining source of water pollution.

J gastrointest oncol impact factor However, given current policies and practices point source pollution from intensive livestock enterprises and non-point pollution (Npp) from crop production will continue to increase and become the major cause of poor water quality, and also an important cause of air pollution (notably soot, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen). Strong and comprehensive actions are needed at all levels of government to control this pollution, including the application of the concept of the circular economy to agriculture. Electricity production by source Npp from crop production is much more difficult to control than point source pollution from livestock so the Task Force has focused its analysis on the former . K electric bill statement The Task Force concludes that the key issue for the Chinese government is neither the lack of knowledge about Npp nor the lack of technologies to control it. Electricity font CAS, MOA and their provincial and local partners have done much to identify the causes of Npp and develop management strategies to decrease it. Electricity tattoo designs The key issue is the absence of the policy framework and institutional mechanisms required to inform farmers about the causes of Npp and on how to minimise it, and to encourage them to adopt the available technologies and management practices.

There are already seven Provinces (primarily in the coastal region) where there is a high risk to human and environmental health from crop related Npp, and a further 6 or 7 Provinces where the risks are at a more moderate level. Gas natural inc By 2010 the number of Provinces at the high risk level could rise to 15 given current trends.

Npp is primarily caused by farmers applying too much fertilizer (particularly nitrogen) and pesticide and applying them badly. Gas near me It is particularly serious in the 160 or more counties where there is very intensive vegetable production and fertilizer (and pesticide) application rates are commonly double the recommended level, so plants use only 10-20% of the nitrogen fertilizer applied and some of the excess fertilizer moves down into the groundwater. 5 gas laws Consequently, nitrate levels in shallow wells can be as much as 5-10 times the maximum permissible level for drinking water.

Almost half the nitrogen fertilizer used in China is lost from the soil as a gas or in drainage water before it can benefit crop growth. Gas x ultra strength during pregnancy These losses cause serious environmental damage with global as well as regional and local impacts. Gas dryer vs electric dryer safety The impacts include: l Health risks to millions of people. Electricity 2pm live These risks exist in at least 13 provinces because of the accumulation of fertilizer and pesticide residues in sources of drinking water – particularly well water – and in crops.

Electricity distribution vs transmission Plus more immediate and direct damage to the health of farm workers (commonly women) applying pesticides. l Pollution and ecosystem damage to lakes and rivers.

Gas turbine The fertilizer lost from cropland in drainage water causes the excessive growth of algae (algal blooms or red tides) which starves the water of oxygen and kills or reduces the growth of fish. Electricity and magnetism About half of China’s lakes are seriously eutrophic and Npp from cropland (primarily phosphate on eroded soil particles and nitrogen in surface water runoff and drainage) is often the dominant cause.

Hp gas However, in areas with intensive animal husbandry and high population densities, such as the Tai-lake area, animal and human excreta can be the main cause of eutrophication. Electricity physics pdf This problem has regional impacts because these fertilizer residues eventually reach coastal waters that China shares with other countries where they can damage fisheries production and aquatic ecosystems.

l Contribution to climate change. Gaz 67 for sale There may be a significant impact on climate change because one of the main losses of nitrogen fertilizer is in the form of the nitrous oxide gas which is a much stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Electricity usage by country China is the largest producer and consumer of nitrogen fertilizer in the world, and accounts for about one-third of total use. 850 gas block Hence it might be assumed that China is the source of at least one-third of the world’s loss of nitrous oxide from crop production. Electricity for beginners However, given the overuse or inefficient use of nitrogen fertilizer in China the proportion of global nitrous oxide emissions produced by China could be even higher.

l Inefficiency in crop production. Gas vs electric stove top This stems primarily from the excess use of fertilizer and pesticide which reduces Chinese agriculture’s competitiveness in international markets. Electricity static electricity Economic analysis shows that fertilizer and pesticides inputs and their associated labour requirements form a major part of grain production costs in China and that applying fertilizer and pesticides beyond optimal levels commonly results in unnecessarily high production costs, and can lower product quality because of pesticide residues. Electricity 4th grade powerpoint Given that these production costs are commonly higher than those of other major producers, actions to reduce fertilizer and pesticides overuse will significantly lower production costs, and thereby increase China’s international market competitiveness.

l Income losses to farmers. Gas utility bill The overuse of fertilizer and pesticides impacts on incomes in two main ways. 3 main gas laws First, by causing production costs to be much higher than they need be, hence by reducing net farm incomes by 10-30%. Types of electricity pdf Secondly, by damaging soil structure through secondary salinization and other forms of physical, chemical and biological degradation that reduce crop yields.

a) Fertilizer application rates that exceed the amount that crops can readily use. Electricity video ks1 When application rates exceed about 150-200 kg nitrogen per ha per crop there is a high risk that a large amount of fertilizer will be dissolved in the rain and irrigation water running off or draining through the soil and carried to groundwater, rivers and lakes. Nyc electricity cost Application rates in China’s high crop yield regions commonly exceed this risk level. Gas pedal lyrics The national average annual application rate has not exceeded this risk level yet; however, in some high-yielding Provinces and counties the average is greater than 300 kg nitrogen per ha per crop; and in some intensive vegetable growing areas where they produce up to five crops per year the rate is 1,000 – 5,000 kg nitrogen per ha per year.

K electric jobs 2015 Studies have shown that fertilizer use in some areas could be reduced by 30% without any loss of crop yield b) Excessive application of irrigation water. Electricity outage san antonio This is particularly serious where excess water use for vegetable production causes fertilizer to be washed out of the root zone before they can be taken up by plants. Electricity experiments This overuse can also intensify the water shortages in some areas.

Electricity production Both impacts point to the need for more effective water pricing. c) Use of types of fertilizer that are prone to Npp. Electricity will not generally cause Much of the nitrogen fertilizer is in the form of urea and ammonium bicarbonate which are readily broken down to ammonia gas and lost from the soil. d) Poor fertilizer application techniques. Electricity 2pm Nitrogen fertilizer is commonly applied directly to the soil in the early stages of crop growth and is consequently susceptible to very high losses to the environment.

Gas engine efficiency Few farmers have access to training in fertilizer use. e) Imbalanced fertilizer use. Gas guzzler tax Farmers need to use a fertilizer mixture that has the right proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for their crops and soils. Gas in oil car However, the low educational levels of most farmers, and their lack of access towell-trained and motivated extension workers commonly results in them using the wrong mixture and this lowers fertilizer use efficiency. f) Excessive use of pesticides. Gas constant mmhg Pesticide application rates are often double or triple the recommended rates, and a number of prohibited pesticides are still in use. Electricity related words This overuse results in the high incidence of dangerous residue levels in or on food commodities, and large losses to the environment.

g) Inadequate labelling on fertilizer and pesticide packages. U gas cedar hill mo Many of the above causes of Npp arise from or are made worse by the lack of guidance on packages about rates and timing of applications and other information required by farmers for the sound and safe use of fertilizers and pesticides.

Gas dryer vs electric dryer cost savings In a recent survey 90% of the farmers reported that the fertilizer packages they bought carried no guidance on fertilizer use. h) Inadequate extension services. C gastronomie limonest Farmers, for example, commonly do not adjust the amount of chemical fertilizer they use to allow for the nutrients provided by animal manure and crop residues, because they have received no, little, or misleading advice from extension workers on how to make these adjustments. Electricity review worksheet answers Farm surveys by the Task Force found that less than 15% of households had received training in fertilizer use in the last 20 years, and most households (10-40%) were not aware of any extension activities in their village. Gas in oil tank Only about one-third of the farmers knew that environmentally sound alternatives were available such as integrated pest control.

i) Lack of awareness of Npp by the general public and especially farmers. K gas constant They are unaware or poorly informed about the negative environmental and economic impacts of excess fertilizer and pesticide use. Z gas tijuana telefono Hence there is little public pressure for Npp control and farmers have no or little incentive to stop the overuse of chemical inputs. The Task Force has analysed the technologies and policies that have helped to reduce Npp in other countries, especially members of the European Union (EU). Electricity quiz 4th grade Particular attention has been given to their experience with economic instruments (notably pollution taxes on fertilizers and pesticides), and their approaches to giving sound advice to farmers on Npp control.

Pictures electricity pylons The Task Force has assessed the international experience against the specific features of Chinese agriculture in order to formulate a number of policy recommendations to control Npp. Electricity was invented in what year Although the following recommendations are listed separately, they should be formulated and implemented as mutually supporting actions. Gas mask bong how to use Moreover, they should be consistent with the overall objectives of: 1. Electricity generation in california A national Npp control strategy should be developed. Electricity hair stand up It should integrate food self-sufficiency and environmental objectives, and ensure consistency of action across the key Ministries involved. Gas youtube The strategy should consider the food security, Npp and other environmental implications of lowering grain self-sufficiency to ca 90 per cent.

Gas yoga It should also recognise that measures to control Npp from crop and agricultural production will not alone be sufficient to prevent eutrophication and red tides. Gas oil ratio for leaf blower Urgent action is also needed to control point source pollution from village and town sewage as well as the wastes from intensive livestock enterprises. Gas variables pogil answers It is difficult to establish waste treatment facilities in rural areas in China because of the lack of finance. Gas vs electric oven Consequently it is necessary to develop polices and institutional mechanisms for the financing of sewage and waste treatment facilities in rural and as well as urban areas.

E gaskell north and south Furthermore, the strategy should take account of the possible need for Npp control policies and implementation mechanisms to be formulated in the context of integrated river basin or catchment (watershed) management plans. Z gas tecate telefono It will have to be translated by the State Council into a consistent set of strong laws and regulations, and implemented by appropriate institutional and infrastructural measures at the central and local level. 2. Electricity lessons for 5th grade Urgent action is required to improve the advisory services support to farmers on raising the efficiency of fertilizer and manure use, and reducing the negative environmental impacts of these inputs. Grade 6 science electricity test The actions should include: (i) removing the dependence of extension worker incomes on the sale of fertilizer and pesticides; (ii) introducing a certification system to improve the skills of public and private extension workers; (iii) giving farmers the legal right and financial and technical support to group together to form voluntary, independent farmers associations to improve their access to good extension services or even employ their own extension workers (see also ARD TF report); (iv) measures to widen the use of farmer trains farmer approaches; and (v) raising the environmental awareness of all extension workers.

Static electricity jokes All of the above actions need both financial and political commitments by government, such as increased investment in rural education, health and extension services, and agricultural R&D on environmentally sound and affordable technologies appropriate for small farmers. 3 An agronomic and economic analysis should be undertaken to determine if some of China’s future grain production could be moved from the high Npp risk areas of Eastern China to parts of the central and western provinces where the Npp risk is much less. 2015 electricity increase The first action could be to re-assess from an environmental perspective China’s development strategies on the current distribution of commercial grain production bases. Mp electricity bill payment paschim kshetra This analysis must be very thorough because there could be a difficult environmental trade-off between reducing Npp from intensively managed land in Eastern China and increased soil erosion from the more fragile soils of Western and Central China.

4 Environmental impact assessment should be improved by (i) establishing monitoring stations in key areas to measure risks to human and environmental health from the accumulation of residues from fertilizers, livestock manures and pesticides in soils, rivers, lakes and groundwater aquifers; (ii) conducting surveys to improve the assessment of the current Npp problem. Electricity multiple choice questions grade 9 For example, there has been no national scale investigation of pesticide pollution since 1980, which is a major constraint to state of the environment reporting and the setting of policy priorities for Npp control; (iii) introducing agricultural EIA performance indicators into local government reporting requirements.

5 A feasibility study should be launched to examine whether it is possible to achieve greater recycling of animal manure and human sewage because most of it is currently wasted, and contributes to both point source and non-point source pollution. Electricity and magnetism purcell The study should examine economic as well as a physical and technical constraints and opportunities for recycling at the enterprise, village and regional level and applying the concept of the circular economy to agriculture. 6 Efforts are urgently needed at all levels to increase public awareness of the causes and consequences of Npp from crop production. Electricity through wood Many people know that pesticides cause pollution but are unaware of the pollution caused by fertilizers.

Electricity transmission and distribution costs These efforts need to be well-balanced and carry the message that the correct use of chemical fertilizers, manures and pesticides can achieve both environmental and economic objectives and provide consumers with safe and affordable food. 7 New fertilizer and pesticide laws and regulations should be drawn up. Electricity rates el paso These should encourage the production and use of chemical fertilizers and manure in ways that reduce Npp, for example by : (i) setting higher quality standards for agro-chemicals and organic manures to limit the content of harmful contaminants or residues, for example, cadmium; (ii) establishing Good Farming Practices regarding the dosage, timing and method of application of fertilizers, pesticides and livestock manures to crops, though the efficacy of such measures will be highly dependent on actions to improve rural education and farm support services (see ARD TF report). 8 Stronger controls and incentives for waste discharges and recycling.

Gas zeta costa rica The initial priority is regarding the discharge of wastes from intensive livestock in to waterways and the recycling of animal manure and human sewage. 9. Q gastrobar The agronomic efficiency and environmental safety of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be improved by three mutually supporting action.

First, there should be a national campaign to promote the use of the proven technological measures that lower Npp. Gas in back and chest Such measures include : optimising the rate of nitrogen fertilizer application using existing recommended technologies; reducing the use of ammonium bicarbonate fertilizers; balanced fertilizer applications tailored to specific soil nutrient (including micronutrients) deficiencies, and cropping systems; deep placement of commercial fertilizers, the use of slow release fertilizers and other forms of precision agriculture; adoption of drip irrigation to raise both water and fertilizer use efficiency; encouraging the use of manures with improved management of the level and timing of manure applications; adoption of no-till and other conservation farming techniques to reduce phosphate and pesticide losses on eroded soil particles; and use of catch or cover crops and buffer strips or diversion drains to capture lost nutrients in natural vegetation or harvestable crops. Second, development of new technologies for Npp control and the improvement of existing ones. Gas works park address Recent CAS, CAAS, MOA and donor projects have highlighted a range of R&D opportunities for better fertilizer and pesticide management that have not been taken up because of the lack of research funds.

Third, launching pilot studies on the optimal practices for Npp control. A level physics electricity questions and answers These studies should draw on the experience of SEPA and the MOA in developing environment friendly farming practices and could use the already established eco-counties or model villages as pilot areas for revised Npp control policies and practices.(2004-10-19 孙波 国合会) Site: http://www.china.com.cn/tech/zhuanti/wyh/2008-01/10/content_9512344.htm