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Anderson, C., Kraus, M. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Keltner, D. (2012). The Local-Ladder Effect: Social Status and Subjective Well-Being. Psychological science, (May). doi:10.1177/0956797611434537 Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual’s subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one’s SWB. gas bijoux discount code However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals’ sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.

Donaldson, S. I., Dollwet, M., & Rao, M. (2015). Happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning revisited: Examining the peer-reviewed literature linked to positive psychology. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 185-195. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.943801 Since the original call by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) for a new science of happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning, there has been an explosion of activity in, acclaim for, and criticism of positive psychology. The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the peer-reviewed literature linked to the positive psychology movement. electricity and magnetism lecture notes An extensive systematic review identified 1336 articles published between 1999 and 2013. More than 750 of these articles included empirical tests of positive psychology theories, principles, and interventions. The results show a fairly consistent increase in the rate of publication, and that the number of empirical studies has grown steadily over the time period. The findings demonstrate that positive psychology is a growing and vibrant sub-area within the broader discipline of psychology, committed to using the same rigorous scientific methods as other sub-areas, in pursuit of understanding well-being, excellence, and optimal human functioning. . . . Conclusion: The popularity of the positive psychology movement has garnered both energetic acclaim and harsh criticism. Much of the criticism has been wagered at the scientific basis of many of the claims being made. While the concern may be well founded when restricted to commenting on the vast popular non-peer-reviewed literature, much progress has been made by psychological scientists heeding the call for a science of positive psychology. The growing peer-reviewed scientific literature has much to say about optimal human functioning. Basic research is now being accompanied by intervention research examining the application of positive psychology theories, principles, programs, and policies. Another decade of sound empirical research promises to nudge us closer to the original vision of a better scientific understanding of the key factors that enable individuals, communities, organizations, and societies to flourish.

Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). gas prices in texas 2015 Seeing the glass half full: A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques Psychologiques, 18, 107-120. doi:10.1016/j.prps.2012.02.002 During the past few decades, the psychological trait of optimism has garnered an increasing amount of interest from scientists, and numerous studies have now shown that optimism is associated with important benefits. The present review summarizes the main findings from this body of research. We begin by describing the two main ways in which researchers have defined and operationalized optimism, as "optimistic explanatory style" and as "dispositional optimism". o gastronomo buffet Second, we provide an overview of the various studies documenting the benefits of optimism. Optimism indeed appears to be associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, better health, and more success. In addition, we describe some of the ongoing controversies in this area of research. Third, we summarize what researchers currently know about the causes of optimism, and how optimism can be fostered in adults as well as in youth. Finally, the present review highlights the adaptive nature of optimism, while recognizing that being optimistic under all circumstances may not always be best. Cultivating flexible and realistic optimism may therefore be most advantageous. We conclude by pointing out important areas of research for the future. These include continuing the search for the biological and brain substrates of optimism, and investigating the psychological and physiological benefits of adopting a flexible (as opposed to rigid) optimistic outlook on life.

Lomas, T., & Ivtzan, I. (2015). Second wave positive psychology: Exploring the positive-negative dialectics of wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies. doi:10.1007/s10902-015-9668-y This paper has provided a summary of SWPP-which, following Wong (2011), could equally be referred to as PP 2.0-which is above all characterised by appreciation of the dialectical nature of wellbeing (in conjunction with other subsidiary elements, such as a deep understanding of context). It was suggested that this dialectical appreciation centres on three key components: the principle of appraisal (the difficulty of categorising phenomena as either positive or negative), the principle of co-valence (the notion that many experiences involve a blend of positive and negative elements), and the principle of complementarity (the idea that wellbeing and flourishing depend upon a complex balance and harmonization of light and dark aspects of life). The principle of appraisal was demonstrated through five case studies of conceptual dichotomies, which revealed that an appraisal of the respective value of each of the polarities was dependent upon context. The principle of co-valence was shown through two case studies of complex processes, posttraumatic growth and love, which, while both being indicative of flourishing, involve a balance of positive and negative experiences. Together, both issues (of appraisal and covalence) substantiate the broader issue of complementarity, which holds that flourishing depends on the delicate dialectic interaction of light and dark aspects of life. These considerations show the way in which PP is evolving and maturing as a discipline, and point the way ahead to future scholarship on the nature of wellbeing.

Macleod, A. K. (2012). Well-being, positivity and mental health: An introduction to the special issue. la gasolina lyrics translation Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 19, 279-82. doi:10.1002/cpp.1794 Enhancing well-being, as opposed to reducing distress, has traditionally not been a focus for clinical practice. There are differences in views about the nature of well-being, but enhancing well-being in clinical settings is a straightforward goal whatever concept of well-being is adopted. Reasons for adopting a well-being enhancing, as well as a distress-reducing, focus include the fact that many psychological problems do not fit the simple acute treatment model of disorder, that positive experience inhibits negative experience, and that people can benefit from therapists seeing them as more than the sum of their problems. In recent years, well-being has been of increasing interest to researchers and clinicians, and enhancing well-being is emerging as a potentially valuable element of effective clinical practice.

Padesky, C. & Mooney, K. (2012). Strengths-based cognitive-behavioural therapy: A four-step model to build resilience. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 19, 283-90. doi:10.1002/cpp.1795 Padesky and Mooney’s four-step Strengths-Based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) model is designed to help clients build positive qualities. This article shows how it can be used to build and strengthen personal resilience. A structured search for client strengths is central to the approach, and methods designed to bring hidden strengths into client awareness are demonstrated through therapist-client dialogues. Development of positive qualities requires a shift in therapy perspective and different therapy methods from those employed when therapy is designed to ameliorate distress. gas station near me open Required adjustments to classic CBT are highlighted with specific recommendations for clinical modifications designed to support client development of resilience such as a focus on current strengths, the constructive use of imagery and client-generated metaphors. Although the focus of this article is on resilience, this Strengths-Based CBT model offers a template that also can be used to develop other positive human qualities. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: A four-step strengths-based cognitive-behavioral therapy approach is presented. Therapists help clients identify existing strengths that are used to construct a personal model of resilience. Client-generated imagery and metaphors are particularly potent to help the client remember and creatively employ new positive qualities. Behavioral experiments are designed in which the goal is to stay resilient rather than to achieve problem resolution. Therapists are encouraged to use constructive therapy methods and interview practices including increased use of smiling and silence.

Ruini, C., & Fava, G. (2012). e85 gas stations in san antonio tx Role of well-being therapy in achieving a balanced and individualized path to optimal functioning. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 19, 291-304. doi:10.1002/cpp.1796 A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), based on Ryff’s conceptual model, has been developed and tested in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one’s self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one’s life and a sense of self-determination. A decreased vulnerability to depression, mood swings and anxiety has been demonstrated after WBT in high-risk populations. School interventions based on the principles of WBT have been found to yield both promotion of well-being and decrease of distress compared with control groups. The differential technical characteristics and indications of WBT are described, with a special reference to the promotion of an individualized and balanced path to achieve optimal human functioning, avoiding the polarities in positive psychological dimensions. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: A specific psychotherapeutic strategy, well-being therapy, for modifying the levels of psychological well-being has been developed and tested. In controlled trials, it has yielded significant benefits in clinical populations, particularly as to vulnerability to affective alterations. Well-being therapy may help in achieving flexibility and balance in psychological dimensions that underlie optimal human functioning. Best results are achieved when it is applied to the sub-acute phase of mood and anxiety disorders, in a sequential model. Well-being therapy may have a preventive role in general populations and particularly in children.

Simonton, D. K. (2012). Teaching creativity: Current findings, trends, and controversies in the psychology of creativity. Teaching of Psychology, 39, 217-222. doi:10.1177/0098628312450444 In the past decade, the psychological study of creativity has accelerated greatly. To facilitate the teaching of creativity, I provide an overview of the recent literature. The overview begins by discussing recent empirical results and research trends. gas stoichiometry This discussion specifically treats creativity’s cognitive, differential, developmental, and social aspects. Then I outline central controversies in the study of creativity. These debates concern the nature of creative thought (domain-specific vs. generic processes), creative development (nature vs. nurture), and creative persons (psychopathology vs. mental health). The article closes by asking not just how to teach creativity but also how to teach creativity creatively.