Prudhoe bay oil field – wikipedia gas kinetic energy formula

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The area was originally identified as a potential gas 78 oil field and selected in the early 1960s as part of the 100 million acres the federal government allotted to the new state of Alaska under the Alaska Statehood Act as a form of economic support. Tom Marshall, a key state employee tasked with selecting the 100 million acres, said the geology reminded him of big oil basins he’d seen in Wyoming. [20] [21] Commercial oil exploration started in Prudhoe Bay area in the 1960s and, after a number of fruitless years, a rig produced a natural gas flare in December 1967. The oil field was confirmed on March 12, 1968, by Humble Oil (which later became part of Exxon) and Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), with the well Prudhoe Bay State #1. [1] [3] [22] ARCO was the operating partner q gases componen el aire. [23] Drilling sites for the discovery and confirmation wells were staked by geologist Marvin Mangus. BP was among the companies that had been active in the region, and BP was able to establish itself as a major player in the western part of the Prudhoe field. [1] The field was initially operated as two separate developments, the BP Western Operating Area and the ARCO Eastern Operating Area. Upon acquisition of ARCO by BP and sale of ARCO Alaska assets to Phillips Petroleum in 2000, the two operating areas were consolidated and BP became the sole operator of the field. [1] [24] : slide 4 In 1974 the State of Alaska’s Division of Geological Geophysical Surveys estimated that the field held 10 billion barrels (1.6 ×10 9 m 3) of oil and 26 trillion cubic feet (740 × 10 ^ 9 m 3) of natural gas. [25] Production did not begin until June 20, 1977 when the Alaska Pipeline was completed. [1]

The field was initially operated as two separate developments, the BP Western Operating Area (WOA: Oil Rim) and the h gas l gas unterschied ARCO Eastern Operating Area (EOA: Gas Cap). Upon acquisition of ARCO by BP and sale of ARCO Alaska assets to Phillips Petroleum in 2000, the two operating areas were consolidated and BP became the sole operator of the field. [24] : slide 4

In the field, oil is moved through pipelines from about 1000 wells to a pumping station at the head of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline; flow lines carry electricity storage association oil from the wells to local processing centers, then through transit lines to the pumping station. [24] : slides 4a-d According to a 2007 recording of BP representative, to replace the huge volume of material BP removes from beneath the ground, sea water is injected that is collected from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. [27] Production [ edit ]

North Slope oil production peaked in 1989 at 2 million barrels per day (320 × 10 ^ 3 m 3/d) (Greater Prudhoe Bay: 1.5 million barrels per day (240 × 10 ^ 3 m 3/d), but had fallen to 943,000 barrels per day (149,900 m 3/d) in 2005, [28] while Greater Prudhoe averaged 411,000 barrels per day (65,300 m 3/d) in December, 2006 and Prudhoe itself averaged 285,000 barrels per day (45,300 m 3/d). [29] Total production from 1977 through 2005 was 11 billion barrels (1.7 × 10 ^ 9 m 3).

Claims on petroleum seeps in the Cape Simpson area were first made in 1915 by a group consisting of T.L. Richardson, W.B. Van Valen, O. Hansen, B. Panigeo and Egowa after these last two, Eskimos, pointed out two large mounds fifty feet high and 200 feet in diameter. [36] Gold prospectors la gas prices now Smith and Berry also discovered these seeps and formed an investment group in San Francisco led by R.D. Adams, who funded an investigation led by the geologist H.A. Campbell. [37] His report noted disputing claims by Standard Oil Company. [38] This led to the establishment of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 in 1923, after which the Navy engaged the United States Geological Survey to survey the area from 1923 until 1926, who concluded the best objectives gas cap light were Cretaceous rocks. [39] From 1943 until 1953, the Navy drilled eighty wells, including the area at Cape Simpson and Umiat but none flowed more than 250 barrels per day. [40]

The discovery of the Swanson River Oil Field on the Kenai Peninsula in 1957 by the Richfield Oil Corporation prompted the company to send geologists to the Arctic starting in 1959 and seismic survey crews in 1963, which recorded a reconnaissance line across what was identified as the Prudhoe structure in 1964. [41] In 1965, during the state lease sale, Richfield partnered with Humble Oil and acquired leases over what was later identified as the gas cap while British Petroleum was awarded leases over the oil ring. [42]

In 1968, Prudhoe Bay State No. 1 encountered the Permian- Triassic gas in back symptoms Sadlerochit formation at 8200 feet which flowed gas at 1.25 million cubic feet per day with 20-27 per cent porosity and tens of millidarcies permeability. [43] Oil, condensate and gas are produced from the Triassic, Ivishak sandstone. This reservoir was deposited as a complex amalgamation of fan deltas and alluvial fans. The continuity of this fan delta was shown to extend seven miles gas oil ratio units away when the ARCO-Humble Sag River State No. 1 well was drilled. [44] During the field’s early life the oil-bearing sandstone in some locations was 600 feet (180 m) thick. Today, the oil bearing zone’s average thickness is about 60 feet (18 m) and the initial estimate of Oil in place was 2.3 billion barrels. [45] [46]

The original target of the Prudhoe Bay State No. 1 was the Mississippian Lisburne limestone, encountered at 8,800 feet and flowed 1,152 barrels of oil per day in the 9,505 to 9,825 foot interval along with 1.3 million cubic feet of gas. [47] This initial oil was burned because there wasn’t ample storage, the flames of which were spotted by a passing airline. [48] The Department of Energy in 1991 estimated oil in place for this formation at 3.1 billion barrels. [49] Statistics [ edit ]

The March 2006 oil spill led the United States Department of Transportation to mandate that the transit lines be inspected for corrosion. As a result, BP announced on 6 August 2006 they had discovered severe corrosion, with losses of 70 to 81 percent in the 3/8-inch thickness of the pipe walls. Oil electricity deregulation wikipedia leaking was reported in one area, with the equivalent of four to five barrels of oil spilled. [53] The damage required replacement of 16 of 22 miles (35 km) of pipeline at the Prudhoe Bay. BP said it was surprised to find such severe corrosion and that it had been 14 years since they had used a pipeline inspection gauge (pig) to clean out its lines because the company believed the use of the pigging equipment might damage pipe integrity. [54] BP Exploration announced that they were electricity questions grade 9 shutting down the oil field indefinitely, due to the severe corrosion and a minor leak in the oil transit lines. [54] [55] This led to an 8% reduction in the amount of oil produced by the United States, as Prudhoe Bay was the country’s largest oil producer, producing over 400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m 3/d).

BP initially estimated up to 2 to 3 months before the pipelines would be fully operational. [54] This caused increases in world oil prices, [56] and BP revised the estimated operational date to January 2007. [57] London electricity merit badge worksheet brent crude hit an intra-day high of $77.73/barrel, the all-time high, at that time, being $78.18/barrel. United States crude oil peaked at $76.67/barrel. The state of Alaska, which gets most of its revenue from taxing the oil industry, lost as much as $6.4 million each day until production restarted. [58]

In March 2009 the State of Alaska sued BP in matter number 3AN-09-06181-CI alleging that BP was negligent in its management of rigging operations and corrosion control in the transit lines leading from the field into pumping station one of the Trans Alaska Pipeline. The state is seeking damages for lost royalty and tax revenues. The case seems to have been dismissed in 2010. [61] See also [ edit ]