Publications electricity and magnetism online games

###########

This report summarises the main insights from Coal Transitions research project. Firstly, it outlines the growing momentum behind coal transitions around the world, due to economic, technological and policy factors. Secondly, the report highlights key findings from case studies of six major coal-consuming countries (China, India, Poland, Germany, Australia and South Africa), which explore how “below-2°C”-compatible transitions away from thermal coal could be implemented. gas near me app The report notes that, with the right policies, coal transitions that are consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement can be done in an economically affordable and socially acceptable way.

Under the Coal Transitions project, national experts in China, India, South Africa, Poland, Australia and Germany explored options for their countries to implement economically feasible and socially acceptable coal transition strategies that are consistent with the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement. Their reports are available below: i. Coal Transition in China

This report explores pathways, implications and policy options for going beyond China’s existing cap on coal use. The report explores in particular options for an 2°C-compatible “early peaking” scenario for Chinese emissions that would see the share of thermal coal in the Chinese energy system decline steadily from 2020 out to a minimal amount in 2050.

This report explores pathways, implications and policy options for Australia to move beyond domestic coal use during the next 2 decades, as its old coal plant fleet continues to age and renewable energy becomes more competitive. It also highlights the need to prepare for growing downside risks to its coal export sector as market fundamentals shift in the Asia-Pacific region.

This report explores pathways, implications and policy options for Poland to significantly phase down its domestic coal use by 2050. It highlights the opportunities presented by the current economic and labour market context around coal mining in Poland to make a relatively timely shift into alternative energy sources and economic activities.

As an internationally traded commodity, the global market for steam coal can be strongly affected by unexpected policy developments in major coal-importing countries, like China, India, or Japan. kite electricity generation This report looks at a range of factors that could shift the future fundamentals of the global steam coal market over the next 10-15 years as coal transitions gather speed for different reasons. Using insights from DIW Berlin’s COALMOD-World coal market model, it highlights some of the growing risks faced by major coal exporters.

Subsidies for German hard coal production will end in 2018, resulting in a final shutdown of domestic hard coal production. This paper looks back at the 60 years of steady decline and transition of an industry that once employed more than 700,000 people. electricity grid uk One focus of the historic case study therefore lies on the Ruhr area – Germany’s largest hard coal mining area that was hit by this economically driven transition. The second focus lies on the politically driven reduction of lignite production in Eastern Germany due to the reunification in 1990.

The analysis is hereby divided into the quantitative consideration of the significance of coal for the energy system and the regional economies, as well as an evaluation of implemented political instruments accompanying the reductions in the coal sector. 9gag wiki This analysis of past transitions of mining areas and energy systems in Germany might, however, provide other countries and regions with valuable lessons of how to structure their upcoming coal phase-out period and therefore provides a useful addition to the existing literature.

This paper aims to provide a foundation for filling this gap. It first provides a definition of transition policy, identifying its key parameters. It then explores possible values of these parameters, resulting in an original map of the “logical space” of transition policy: the possible combinations of policy objectives, policy scope, and target actors that transition policy could encompass. To move from the possible to the desirable, the paper finally suggests three criteria for normatively evaluating transition policies: fairness; political transformation potential; and expected effectiveness.

This report presents the main economic facts on the role of coal in the Polish economy, and analyses the implications of the transition away from coal for coal consumption and coal mining employment in Poland. Poland’s energy mix relies on coal, most of which is domestically produced. This paper argue that issues related to job creation and the cushioning of negative shocks for workers are key for the phasing out of coal in Poland, especially at the regional and local levels.

This paper focuses on coal taxes, investigating both the incentives for implementation and the impacts of withholding supply. electricity worksheets high school Specifically, it considers hypothetical taxes on the export or production of steam coal that are levied by Australia, the world’s second largest steam coal exporter, or alternatively by a coalition of major exporters. It reflects on the effects of coal taxes on CO2 emissions from steam coal, tax revenues, and shifts in the global patterns of consumption, production, and trade of steam coal

Multiple environmental, economic and political drivers have caused the coal transitions issue to become a key climate policy discussion topic, leading to a call for an assurance of “just transition”. Thus, this paper discusses the need for governments to raise their overall ambitions and nationally determined contributions (NDCs) towards coal transitions and reflects on how they should do it so that it is just for all stakeholders—especially coal sector workers and their communities—whose economic livelihoods depend on the future of an industry that will be in decline.

It is often assumed that a transition to a low-carbon future will have highly disruptive and potentially devastating effects on coal regions and their communities. However, evidence from the experience of industrial decline and attempted renewal in Europe’s old industrial regions demonstrates that successful regional transition is—while not inevitable—indeed possible. Drawing on the literature of regional resilience and innovation, the paper offers lessons, insights and cautionary warnings from the experience of renewal initiatives in Europe’s old industrial regions and illustrates the ways in which some of the seeds for a ‘just’ regional transitions to zero-carbon economies may, in fact, lie in a careful understanding of the potential to build on the specific historical context of the regions industrial development and capabilities.

This recent “case study has demonstrated that the positions of key civil society stakeholders in Australia’s energy debate, including unions, environment groups and to some extent business groups have been converging toward a “just”—or at least an orderly—transition as a dominant political narrative for substantive policies to improve the transition arrangements in the Australian energy sector. Strengthening and perhaps formalising these alliances will improve the incentives for political parties to invest in long-term policies in the energy sector.”

The stabilisation of the climate system in line with the Paris Agreement on climate change is impossible without the timely phase out of unabated coal from the global energy system. As is increasingly recognised , this transition must also be “just” for workers and local communities. electricity distribution map The Coal Transitions report inform the future of coal producing regions, highlighting key lessons from previous coal transitions, in the Netherlands, UK, Czech Republic, Poland, Spain and the US SYNTHESIS REPORT