R (programming language) – wikipedia gas knife

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R was created arkansas gas tax by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman [17] at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and currently developed by the R Development Core Team (of which Chambers is a member). [18] R is named partly after the first names of the first two R authors and partly as a play on the name of S. [19] The project was conceived in 1992, with an initial version released in 1995 and a stable beta version in 2000. [20] [21] [22] Statistical features [ edit ]

R and its libraries implement a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques, including linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, and others. R is easily extensible through functions and extensions, and the R community is noted for its active contributions in terms of packages. Many of R’s standard functions are written in R itself, which makes it easy for users to follow the electricity bill payment hyderabad algorithmic choices made. For computationally intensive tasks, C, C++, and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. Advanced users can write C, C++, [23] Java, [24] .NET [25] or Python code to manipulate R objects directly. [26] R is highly extensible through the use of user-submitted packages for specific functions or specific areas of study. Due to its S heritage, R has stronger object-oriented programming facilities than most statistical computing languages. Extending R is also eased by its lexical scoping rules. [27]

Like other similar languages such as APL and MATLAB, R supports matrix arithmetic. R’s data structures include vectors, matrices, arrays, data frames (similar to tables in a relational database) and lists. [30] Arrays are stored 6 gas laws in column-major order. [31] R’s extensible object system includes objects for (among others): regression models, time-series and geo-spatial coordinates. The scalar data type was never a data structure of R. [32] Instead, a scalar is represented as a vector with length one. [33]

R supports procedural programming with functions and, for some functions, object-oriented programming with generic functions. A generic function acts differently depending on the classes of arguments passed to it. In other words, the generic function dispatches the function ( method) specific to that class of object. For example, R has a generic print function that can print almost every class of object in R with a simple print(objectname) syntax. [34]

The capabilities of R are extended through user-created packages, which allow specialised statistical techniques, graphical devices, import/export capabilities, reporting tools ideal gas definition chemistry ( knitr, Sweave), etc. These packages are developed primarily in R, and sometimes in Java, C, C++, and Fortran. [ citation needed] The R packaging system is also used by researchers to create compendia to organise research data, code and report files in a systematic way for sharing and public archiving. [36]

The Task Views page (subject list) on the CRAN website [40] lists a wide range of tasks (in fields such as Finance, Genetics, High Performance Computing, Machine Learning, Medical Imaging, Social Sciences and Spatial Statistics) to which R has been applied and for which packages are available. R has also been identified by the FDA as suitable for interpreting data from clinical research. [41]

The main R implementation is written in R, C, and electricity billy elliot lyrics Fortran, and there are several other implementations aimed at improving speed or increasing extensibility. A closely related implementation is pqR (pretty quick R) by Radford M. Neal with improved memory management and support for automatic multithreading. Renjin and FastR are Java implementations of R for use in a Java Virtual Machine. CXXR, rho 3 gases in the atmosphere, and Riposte [66] are implementations of R in C++. Renjin, Riposte, and pqR attempt to improve performance by using multiple processor cores and some form of deferred evaluation. [67] Most of these alternative implementations are experimental and incomplete, with relatively few users, compared to the main implementation maintained by the R Development Core Team.

In January 2009, the New York Times ran an article charting the growth of R, the reasons for its popularity among data scientists and the threat it poses to commercial statistical packages such as SAS. [78] In June 2017 data scientist Robert Muenchen published a more in-depth comparison between R and other software packages, The Popularity of Data Science Software [79].

In 2007, Richard Schultz, Martin Schultz, Steve Weston and Kirk Mettler founded Revolution Analytics to provide commercial support for Revolution R, their distribution of R, which also includes components developed electricity facts label by the company. Major additional components include: ParallelR hp gas online booking no, the R Productivity Environment IDE, RevoScaleR (for big data analysis), RevoDeployR, web services framework, and the ability for reading and writing data in the SAS file format. [80] Revolution Analytics also offer a distribution of R designed to comply with established IQ/OQ/PQ criteria which enables clients in the pharmaceutical sector to validate their installation of REvolution R. [81] In 2015, Microsoft Corporation completed the acquisition of Revolution Analytics. [82] and has since integrated the R programming language into SQL Server 2016, SQL Server 2017, Power BI, Azure SQL Database, Azure Cortana Intelligence, Microsoft R Server and Visual Studio 2017. [83]