Rebuilding place in the urban space gas equations chemistry

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Redskins talking up a new stadium — in either DC or Maryland. This past week has media reports that team owner Daniel Snyder is looking to play off DC (" Redskins, DC working with Congress to slip stadium provision into spending bill," Washington Post) and Maryland (" Hogan’s plan for new Redskins stadium on parkland in Maryland faces hurdles, opposition," Baltimore Sun) against each other for the best deal for a stadium.

Over the past couple years, Events DC has created a new master plan for the RFK Campus. gas ark But it is encumbered by two facts. First, the lease ends in 20 years and while that seems like a long time, from the standpoint of capital improvements planning it’s short, and makes it impossible to finance. Second, it restricts uses on the campus to recreation (a sports stadium has been deemed a compliant use).

It’s because the parking lots, especially along Benning Road, ought to be redeveloped, ideally as more housing, in a city that needs it given the ongoing growth of the metropolitan area, and the fact that west of this area, along the H Street corridor, a few thousand housing units have already been added, and more housing will support this commercial district and the city as a whole.

The Washington Post says the same in an editorial, "." Although they term it more around "Home Rule" and argue that the stadium element is a distraction, that the other changes should go through. The problem is that if Congress does change and extend the lease but also includes a requirement for a stadium, it will require another act of law to change that element in the future.

A new planning initiative should be required. However, were the lease to be modified, I’d argue there needs to be another planning initiative, and it should include the city planning office, whereas the most recent effort was done by Events DC on its own, and only looked at recreational elements, even if from a more expansive definition. From the Post:

City officials have long had their eyes on redeveloping the stadium site, as well as an adjacent 67-acre tract of former federal land to the south. Bowser asked Trump in a March 2017 letter for “either a full transfer of jurisdiction or an extension of the term of the lease for an additional 100 years with a removal of restriction limiting the use of the property.” The letter was also sent to Zinke.

“NFL stadiums do not generate significant local economic growth, and the incremental tax revenue is not sufficient to cover any significant financial contribution by the city,” said [Roger] Noll, a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. He has written articles and books and given talks on the public financing of sports stadiums. …

Noll said that because football stadiums are used so infrequently – two preseason games, eight regular season games and possibly a couple of playoff games – they do not realize a large economic benefit from those games alone. Realizing this, the San Francisco 49ers’ new Levi’s Stadium, which opened last year, has played host to several other events, including concerts and college football, soccer and hockey games.

DC doesn’t benefit from income taxes on players. One thing that does provide some revenue to states is an income tax on player incomes. This is even extended to the players of visiting teams, on the theory that they are paid based on when and where they play. gas in babies home remedies But DC is forbidden from assessing income taxes on nonresidents, including professional athletes. So that makes the economic return from funding a sports stadium or arena even smaller.

Note though that others disagree, with the Staples Center example in Los Angeles (" Its design has been scorned, but L.A. Live has been crucial to downtown’s resurgence," Los Angeles Times) and with two different projects in DC, originally the now Capital One Arena in Downtown DC’s East End and the Washington Nationals baseball stadium in the Capitol Riverfront district in Southeast–proponents claim that these projects spurred development when market and other conditions did not favor it, and there is credence to these claims.

Although like DC 15 and 20 years ago, maybe in Inglewood you do need a stadium to spark the change in economic conditions for that particular area, vis a vis its place in the development landscape of Greater Los Angeles (" The Rams’ Inglewood Stadium Could Be a Game Changer in Planning," Architect Magazine; " Renderings unveiled for mixed-use neighborhood around L.A.’s new NFL stadium," Architect’s Newspaper).

Choosing your partners carefully. In the context of "public-private partnerships," which are really contracts between governments and the private sector where everything is specified and the private entity not willing to provide anything outside of the contract, I argue that local governments need to be much more careful in choosing their associations.

For example, the Trump Organization, which regularly sues governments to reduce property taxes and stiffs contractors ought not to be a preferred firm. Or the Miami Marlins baseball team, which is trying to get out of a requirement to pay a small portion of the profit on the sale of the team to Miami-Dade County in recognition of its investment in the stadium.

This year’s recent disintegration of the team’s success is merely one example in the almost two decades of failure while Snyder has owned the team. gas bijoux soho They are one of the worst performers in the National Football League. Why would you want them to be your partner? Why would you give into their demand for many hundreds of millions of dollars for a stadium when the likelihood is that they will continue to be a bad actor and the team will suck.

I don’t care if or where Snyder builds a new stadium. I just hope everyone in the DMV understands that the shabby way Snyder deals with his own customers — and the way he is playing politicians against each other while keeping some of them in the dark — is exactly the behavior they can expect if he moves to their turf. The bigger the project — and this ego-driven monstrosity no doubt would be vast — the worse it can turn out. For your wallet or your quality of life. …

Snyder, perhaps, has picked an unfortunate time to be finagling with multiple jurisdictions about a stadium of which the public has heard little or nothing. The Redskins’ popularity, once invulnerable, has plummeted under Snyder, who has removed thousands of seats at FedEx Field because he can’t sell them. He also listens as his team is booed, for example this past Sunday, trailing 40-0, or else hears his own fans drowned out by the cheers of fans of the visiting team.

… at a time when crime on the subway was at an all-time high, Bratton focused his attention on making sure that people paid for their tickets. electricity for refrigeration heating and air conditioning answer key His reasons .. were simple: fare evasion was a gateway drug to more serious crime. Legitimate riders felt they were entering a place of lawlessness and disorder. They saw people going in for free and began to question the wisdom of abiding by the law. The system was veering toward anarchy. By stopping and searching law violators for even the most minor of infractions, troublemakers decided it was easier to pay their fares and leave their weapons (which were often uncovered during searches) at home. t gas terengganu Crime fell exponentially.Studies, such as by the New York City Transit system (" Measuring and Controlling Subway Fare Evasion: Improving Safety and Security at New York City Transit Authority"), Philadelphia (" SEPTA: Felonies down after crackdown on fare-evaders," Philadelphia Inquirer), and in the Netherlands (" The Effects of Increasing the Certainty of Punishment: A Field Experiment on Public Transportation," European Journal of Criminology) find a link between crime reduction and fare payment enforcement.

Fare evasion as a function of poverty. Arresting fare evaders has often been criticized as an initiative with disproportionate negative impacts on the impoverished (" Fare evasion is a crime of poverty," New York Daily News), especially people of color (" Subway Policing in New York City Still Has A Race Problem," Marshall Project). And this is in fact true.

The Guardian has a story, " Why switching on Christmas lights is now a big turn-off: In towns across the country, the big event is now too much hassle to run," about a town in the UK where the merchants have stopped holding an annual Christmas/Holiday lighting event because of complaints, the time required to accomplish it, and the sense that the event doesn’t help draw customers.

The latter point is the most important. gas in back and stomach You have to be hard headed about events in terms of whether or not they help bring business. After all, the original "Summer sidewalk sales" weren’t "placemaking" per se, they were price discount based sales aimed at driving business during otherwise slow periods, and a way to get rid of slow moving inventory.

Does the merchant plan the right responses to leverage the event? But second, and a point too often ignored, the merchants and vendors need to plan for creative ways to leverage the event for sales, to bring people into the stores. Too often, they think that means discounts, and discounts cost money in lost revenue, unless they result in significantly greater revenues, help move otherwise slow moving inventory, etc.

Creating a program instead of a single event. The third thing is to create a "program of events" rather than a one-off event. That makes events like the Holiday Lighting an " anchor event" around which you can build a more wide ranging program, which extends the impact and provides multiple opportunities for drawing in customers–especially if the schedule aims to provide an array of programs targeting a variety of customer segments.

Many organizations as part of their program of marketing materials will include a brochure that lists the commuhity’s annual and/or seasonal event calendar. Of course, the annual program should also be on a webpage, such as this for Old Town Winchester, and in a monthly calendar, for which Main Street Takoma (Park) does a particularly good job.

It doesn’t necessarily have to be a business improvement district or a Main Street organization. There are different ways to provide some level of support. But it needs to be provided in a structured and supportive way. ortega y gasset obras completas You’d rather have the merchants focus most of their time on making their business more successful, not raising money and tracking down stages, lighting, and other logistical requirements.

3. Getting back to Luxembourg, for this to really work, since much of the traffic is commuting traffic originating in France and Belgium (" Cross-border workers provide nearly half of Luxembourg’s workforce," Luxembourg Times), for free transit to have a substantive dampening effect on motor vehicle traffic, they’d need to have cross-border free transit with transit authorities in France and Belgium participating.

The capital of Estonia introduced free public transport at the beginning of 2013 after their populist mayor Edgar Savisaar called a referendum on the decision, dismissed by critics at the time as a political stunt that the city couldn’t afford. … the city remains committed to the programme – claiming that instead of it costing them money, they are turning a profit of €20m a year.

To enjoy Tallinn’s buses, trams, trolley buses and trains for free you must be registered as a resident, which means that the municipality gets a €1,000 share of your income tax every year, explains Dr Oded Cats, an expert who has conducted a year long study on the project. Residents only need to pay €2 for a “green card” and then all their trips are free.

10. Salt Lake City, Pittsburgh, and Calgary, Alberta still have " Downtown free fare zones." Seattle and Portland–the nation’s most prominent example–used to, but dropped them after the Great Financial Crisis of 2008, which led to massive drop offs in tax revenues for governments and transit agencies (" TriMet board kills Portland’s Free Rail Zone, raises fares, cuts bus service," Portland Oregonian, 2012).

It is difficult to overstate the importance to the nation’s health and welfare of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and Bush played a pivotal role in their passage. The legislation was hopelessly mired in Congress until Bush used presidential muscle to break a logjam and get it passed. The updating of the 1970 law remains the most sweeping and comprehensive environmental statute on the books. It created the first “cap and trade” program, which ultimately ended the industrial air pollution causing “acid rain” that had blighted large parts of the country. The program’s use of market mechanisms provides a blueprint for controlling all air pollution that contributes to global warming.

The law also paved the way for the requirement for cleaner-running cars and clean fuels that have radically reduced pollution from smog in the United States. And it provided the government with the ability to control 189 toxic substances that had poisoned the air and to require permits from individual sources of pollution. Citizens were empowered to bring lawsuits seeking penalties against violators to ensure the law’s enforcement.

First, to improve air quality (and note that the widespread use of diesel gasoline in Europe means that air quality is bad in many cities there) it sets the stage for emissions controls on motor vehicles. It also sets the stage for the support of transit, as a different method for reducing motor vehicle traffic, especially in the cores of metropolitan regions.

It means that Federal policy and practice should be supportive of transit generally, and extension of transit in ways that support greater ridership. electricity in costa rica But the Trump Administration has instituted bureaucratic barriers that make it much harder to release funds for transit projects, even though Congress continues to appropriate money for these projects.