Red rover robotics – lesson – teachengineering gas ark


Engineers have demonstrated that there are many benefits to using robots at specific times instead of humans. In an industrial sense, robots can perform complex, and sometimes tedious, jobs more efficiently and effectively than humans. In fact, robots never get tired or bored and, if properly maintained, never get sick or need a break. Could you imagine working in a factory and welding the same joint or tightening gas pump heaven the same screws a thousand times every day? An added bonus to using robots it that they can be used in even more exciting and dangerous environments — in place of humans. This includes exploring the insides of volcanoes and caves, the depths of vast oceans, and even outer space and other planets! Also, robots can help in emergency situations: they can enter a building or structure to disable a bomb or verify damage or loss due to a natural disaster. Equipped with cameras, microscopes electricity usage by appliance and various tools, robots can very effectively identify minerals and collect specimens. Recently, engineers at NASA landed two rover robots on Mars to explore the terrain and gather scientific evidence about the history of Mars.

The first robot was introduced onstage in 1921 in Prague, Czech Republic, during a Karl Capek play entitled Rossum’s Universal Robots. The theme of the play was robots controlling humans in society. Originally, Capek wanted to call the robots labori but his brother Josef suggested the term robot which is derived from robota, a Czech term for forced labor or serf. Though at the time robots were a part of Capek’s imagination b games virus, over the last century science and technology have made robots go from dream to reality.

In 1979, the Robot Institute of America defined a robot as a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. According to Webster’s Dictionary, a robot is defined as a machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being and a mechanism guided by automatic controls. However, the simplest way to refer to a robot is any machine that works on its own, after being programmed by a human. By this definition, alarm clocks, copiers and even toasters are considered robots.

In Lesson electricity symbols and meanings 1, we discussed why it is important to study the history and geology of Mars. Since, it would take months of supplies, food, and fuel just for the return trip home to send a human to Mars, NASA engineers decided to send rover robots to explore the terrain of Mars. The two most recent rovers that have successfully landed on Mars are named Spirit and Opportunity.

Spirit and Opportunity have many parts that are analogous to the human body. According to NASA, each Mars rover has a body, brains, a neck, a head, eyes, an arm, and wheels and legs, among other various parts and components. The body is used to protect their vital organs (also known as electronics) from the extreme temperatures of Mars. From day to night, temperatures can vary from 113 ºC (235 ºF) to -96 ºC (-140 ºF). The rover’s brains are located inside of its body — not its head, as with humans. The rover’s brain comes in the form of computers, which are used to control all of the rover’s motors, instruments, and communications between Earth and electricity year invented Mars. The neck and head of the rover are used to support two types of eyes or cameras: Pancams and Navcams.

Pancams are used to collect a panoramic view of the Martian terrain. Navcams take black and white pictures to capture 3-D imagery of the surface. This information is then sent to the brains of the rover to help navigate the rover and avoid obstacles. There electricity production by state are also Hazcams (Hazardous Avoidance Cameras) placed on the front and back of the rovers also to prevent the rovers from crashing into any unexpected obstacles. The rovers operate off of batteries which are recharged from solar panels on top of the rover.

Interestingly, the rovers only have one arm, but it has a wide range of motion and holds four different instruments to inspect and analyze the Martian terrain. Engineers designed the arm with five degrees of freedom — which gives it such wide range of motion. A degree of freedom can be illustrated with joints of your body. Your elbows and gas symptoms knees have one degree of freedom because you can only move them forward or backward. Your wrist has three degrees of freedom because you can move your wrist up and down, side to side, and rotate it clockwise and counterclockwise. Therefore, five degrees of freedom means that the rover’s arm can move in nearly any direction/any degrees of range: up or down, front to back, side to side, side and up, front and down, etc.

Once the arm is in place, the four instruments can analyze the surface of Mars. The Microscopic Imager is a combination of a microscope and a camera that provides small-scale features of rocks and soil. Its importance is to help understand the properties of the rocks and soils and to help identify if water existed on Mars. Since most of the rocks and soil on Mars contain iron, the Mössbauer Spectrometer was designed to investigate iron-bearing minerals and analyze their bad gas 6 weeks pregnant composition as well as magnetic properties. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) is designed to study x-rays emitted by the rocks and soils to determine their elemental chemistry. Both the Mössbauer Spectrometer and APXS take about 10-12 hours to take measurements. The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) is a powerful grinder that can create holes 2-inches in diameter and .2-inches deep. Once a hole is created, the other instruments are used on the interior of the rock. This distinction is important because the rock’s interior may be drastically different than its exterior, and the instruments reveal how the rock was gas zombies black ops formed and the environmental conditions in which it was altered.

In Lesson 1, we learned about the geology and history of Mars, and why we are interested in studying it. Scientists call on engineers to design and create a Mars Rover Robot to explore and investigate the Martian terrain to further the scientific and geological knowledge of the planet. Several disciplines of engineering had to come together to design the rover: mechanical engineers to design the body and arm of the rover, electrical engineers to build the compact circuitry, and computer engineers to create the programming and communications of the rover. It is important to remember the relationship between science and engineering, and how each area la gasolina letra often times calls upon the other to help further the advancement of both. Now that we understand the design of the rover, Lesson 3 will discuss the manufacturing behind the rover and mission to Mars.

• Cartoon characters such as Bugs Bunny have often been sent into flight missions to escape a situation. Create your own cartoon sketch of a Mars robot. Your character could be in a lab, a spacecraft or on the surface of the planet. Make sure to label the degrees of freedom in your robot’s movement as well as any other special tools your robot has for Mars exploration.

Numbered Heads: Divide the class into teams of three to five students each. Have the students on each team pick numbers (or number off) so each member has a different number. Ask the students a question and give them a short time frame static electricity human body causes for solving it (~1 minute). The members of each team should work together to answer the question. Everyone on the team must know the answer. Call a number at random. Students with that number should raise their hands to give the answer. If not all the students with that number raise their hands, allow the teams to work a little longer.

Robots and Shoes: To cultivate student insight on the difficulty of designing robots to perform simple tasks, have students tie their shoes. Then, have them tie their shoes again, but this time wearing heavy gloves. Finally, tape craft sticks or tongue depressors to the gloves and gas in back trapped have students tie their shoes a third time. They should have experienced that it is harder to tie their shoes with the gloves and craft sticks than with their bare hands. This activity simulates how robots function by limiting the amount of sensation or feeling that is signaled from the students’ hands to their brains while also limiting the range of motion of their fingers.