Red supergiants are the largest stars in the universe arkla gas phone number


A huge amount of energy pushes the outer layers of the star outwards and it turns into a red supergiant. At this stage, the gravitational force of the star is once again balanced by the immense outward radiation pressure caused by the intense helium fusion taking place in the core.

The star that transforms into a red supergiant does so at a cost. It loses a large percentage of its mass out to space. As a result, while red supergiants are counted as the largest stars in the universe, they are not the most massive because they lose mass as they age, even as they expand outward. Properties of Red Supergiants

Red supergiants look red because of their low surface temperatures. They range from about 3,500 – 4,500 Kelvin. According to Wien’s law, the color at which a star radiates most strongly is directly related to its surface temperature. So, while their cores are extremely hot, the energy spreads out over the interior and surface of the star and the more surface area there is, the faster it can cool. A good example of a red supergiant is the star Betelgeuse, in the constellation Orion.

Because of their immense size and mass, these stars require an incredible amount of energy to sustain them and prevent gravitational collapse. As a result, they burn through their nuclear fuel very quickly and most live only a few tens of millions of years (their age depends on their actual mass). Other Types of Supergiants

While red supergiants are the largest types of stars, there are other types of supergiant stars. In fact, it is common for high mass stars, once their fusion process passes beyond hydrogen, that they oscillate back and forth between different forms of supergiants. Specifically becoming yellow supergiants on their way to becoming blue supergiants and back again. Hypergiants

The most massive of supergiant stars are known as hypergiants. However, these stars have a very loose definition, they are usually just red (or sometimes blue) supergiant stars that are the highest order: the most massive and the largest. The Death of a Red Supergiant Star

A very high-mass star will oscillate between different supergiant stages as it fuses heavier and heavier elements in its core. Eventually, it will exhaust all its nuclear fuel that runs the star. When that happens, gravity wins. At that point, the core is primarily iron (which takes more energy to fuse than the star has) and the core can no longer sustain outward radiation pressure, and it begins to collapse.

The subsequent cascade of events leads, eventually to a Type II supernova event. Left behind will be the core of the star, having been compressed due to the immense gravitational pressure into a neutron star; or in the cases of the most massive of stars, a black hole is created. How Solar-type Stars Evolve

People always want to know if the Sun will become a red supergiant. For stars about the size of the Sun (or smaller), the answer is no. They do go through a red giant phase, though, and it looks pretty familiar. When they begin to run out of hydrogen fuel their cores begin to collapse. That raises the core temperature quite a bit, which means there’s more energy generated to escape the core. That process pushes the outer part of the star outward, forming a red giant. At that point, a star is said to have moved off the main sequence.

The star chugs along with the core getting hotter and hotter, and eventually, it begins to fuse helium into carbon and oxygen. During all this time, the star loses mass. It puffs off layers of its outer atmosphere into clouds that surround the star.

Eventually, what’s left of the star shrinks to become a slowly cooling white dwarf. The cloud of material around it is a called a "planetary nebula", and it gradually dissipates. This is a far more gentle "death" than massive stars discussed above experience when they explode as supernovae.