Refworld freedom in the world 2018 – cameroon emoji gas station

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President Paul Biya has ruled Cameroon since 1982. His Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (CPDM) has maintained power by rigging past elections, using state resources 5 gases for political patronage, and limiting the activities of opposition parties. Security forces use violence to disperse antigovernment protests, especially in the country’s two Anglophone regions. The Boko Haram insurgent group continues to attack civilians in northern Cameroon, and security forces responding to the insurgency have been accused of committing human rights violations against civilians.

The government continued to repress an antigovernment protest movement in the Anglophone Northwest and Southwest Regions. The protests began in late 2016 with strikes by lawyers and teachers, who objected to a general lack of acceptance of the English language in courts and schools, despite its constitutional status as one of Cameroon’s two official languages.

The president is directly elected to a seven-year term in a single voting round and may serve an unlimited number of terms. Cameroon’s fragmented opposition was unable to coalesce around a single candidate ahead of the 2011 presidential election gsa 2016 catalog, and Biya easily beat out nearly two dozen opponents to claim 78 percent of the vote. Turnout was low, with one civil society organization reporting it at 35 percent. A Commonwealth election monitoring mission noted problems with voter registration, and said abuse of public resources by the ruling party during the election campaign had tilted the playing field significantly. The mission also noted a general sense of apathy among voters.

In 2013, Cameroon held National Assembly elections, direct elections for municipal councilors, and long-delayed elections for its first Senate. The ruling CPDM won 56 of the elected Senate seats, while the main opposition party, the Anglophone-led Social Democratic Front (SDF), won the remaining 14. Biya appointed an additional 30 senators, three from each of the country’s 10 regions. The CPDM took 148 assembly seats gas 2 chainz and won 305 of the country’s 360 communes.

While some observers characterized the elections as credible, there were also accusations that the CPDM paid bribes to certain municipal councilors of up to $90 each electricity production. The CPDM also enjoyed an advantage over fragmented and weak opposition parties due to preexisting party infrastructure. A3. Are the electoral laws and framework fair, and are they implemented impartially by the relevant election management bodies? 1 / 4

The ability to organize political groups and those groups’ freedom to operate is subject to the whims of the central government, and opposition leaders risk arrest and imprisonment. In January 2017, the Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC), an Anglophone party, was banned. In October 2017, a military court convicted Aboubakar Siddiki, a critic of Biya and the head of the small Cameroon’s Patriotic Salvation Movement, of attempting to incite a revolution and sentenced him to 25 years in prison, prompting condemnation from Amnesty International and others.

In February 2017, authorities banned a rally and a march planned by the main opposition SDF, which were to have taken place in the capital. In October, authorities in the capital granted the SDF a permit to hold a march and a rally intended to show solidarity with o goshi judo protests in the Anglophone regions. However, the permit was revoked days later on grounds that the activities constituted a threat to public safety. B2. Is there a realistic opportunity for the electricity lab physics opposition to increase its support or gain power through elections? 0 / 4

Despite having almost 300 political parties, Cameroon remains essentially a one-party state. The numerous opposition parties are highly fragmented, preventing any one from becoming a credible threat to the ruling CPDM. B3. Are the people’s political choices free from domination by the military, foreign powers, religious hierarchies, economic oligarchies, or any other powerful group that is not democratically accountable? 1 / 4

In 2017, the government clamped down on media coverage of the Anglophone protest movement. The CNC issued an official statement warning that media outlets that covered the demonstrators’ grievances could adversely affect the Republican system, unity and territorial integrity, and the democratic principles on which the state stands gas x coupon 2015, which was interpreted as a threat to impose sanctions against outlets that covered the issue. In January, authorities shut down a radio station after it aired a debate about the Anglophone protest movement. The same month, the German news agency DW reported that its journalists and others had been threatened with sanctions if they covered the demonstrations. And in December 2017, Cameroonian-American author Patrice Nganang, known for his criticism of Biya, was jailed for three weeks and then deported. The government said he had threatened Biya’s life in a Facebook post, but Nganang’s family said he was detained after gas prices going up june 2016 writing an article for the French-language, pan-African magazine Jeune Afrique, in which he criticized Biya’s repression of the Anglophone protest movement. Radio journalist Mancho Bibixy remained in detention at year’s end on charges related to his calls for the secession of the Anglophone regions.

Ahmed Abba – a Nigerian journalist arrested in 2015 in connection with his reporting on Boko Haram – in 2017 was convicted on terrorism-related charges and sentenced to 10 years in prison. However, he was freed after being credited with time served when a court later reduced his sentence to 24 months. D2. Are individuals free to practice and express their religious faith or nonbelief in public and private? 2 / 4

Religious freedom is somewhat restricted in areas affected by the presence of Boko Haram, which has carried out violent attacks against places of worship. In 2015, the government banned full face veils in the Far North region following two suicide bombings that were attributed to Boko Haram and thought to have been carried out by veiled women. However, the ban is not usually enforced.

Public criticism of the government and membership in opposition political parties can have a negative impact on professional opportunities and advancement. Cameroonians tend to avoid discussing sensitive political electricity physics problems issues for fear of reprisals, notably the potential for a return to a federal system that would grant the Anglophone regions more autonomy, or the regions’ outright secession.

Internet access gas news in the Anglophone regions was completely shut down for a total of 93 days between January and April of 2017 after several days of demonstrations in Bamenda, the regions’ main city, inhibiting online discussion of the Anglophone protest movement. Internet outages hit the region again in October, following that month’s protests. The mass arrests of protest participants in October further discouraged discussion of the Anglophone issues.

Freedom of assembly is subject to significant restrictions. In 2017, the Cameroonian government violently repressed a protest movement in the country’s Anglophone regions. In October, security forces responded to demonstrations there with live bullets and tear gas. At least 20 people were killed in the crackdown, and at least 500 gas stations in texas people were arrested, largely in mass sweeps.

Due process rights are generally not respected. Lengthy pretrial detentions are commonplace. State security forces have carried out arbitrary detentions in both the Far North region, in response to the Boko Haram conflict, and in the Anglophone regions. French legal customs are frequently imposed upon Anglophone regions. F3. Is there protection from the illegitimate use of physical force and freedom from war and insurgencies? 0 / 4

Discrimination against Anglophone Cameroonians and individuals from certain ethnic groups gas 37 weeks pregnant including the Bamiléké is common. The government imposes the French language in Anglophone regions, and Anglophone Cameroonians are frequently denied senior jobs in the civil service. Discrimination against the LGBT community is rife, and violence against LGBT people is not uncommon.

Free movement is difficult in parts of the Far North due to Boko Haram activity. In 2017, the government issued bans on the movement of persons in the Anglophone regions during protest periods. G2. Are individuals able to exercise the right to own property and establish private businesses without undue interference from state or nonstate actors? 1 / 4