Rejuvenation of punjab’s economy _ economic and political weekly

Punjab has had a very dynamic history, full of challenges and experiments, and is home to the progressive and recent religion, Sikhism. Electricity jokes Punjab is unique in many ways with vast fertile lands and experiences of a series of invasions from advancing armies from North for a long time, right to the recent history of the agonising partition in 1947. Gas dryer vs electric dryer safety In 1966, the division of Punjab into three parts again disrupted the economic progress of the state. Gas bubble in eye However, within a short period of time, thanks to the green revolution in the 1980s, it became the granary of country and richest state of India. Wholesale electricity prices by state These good times were short-lived due to lack of foresight by political parties and policymakers, and Punjab witnessed an era of militancy. Electricity bill average Consequently, by the early 1990s, Punjab’s ranking slipped to third place in terms of per capita income and by 2012 to seventh place. Gas x extra strength vs ultra strength The volume provides insight into the declining trend of the growth rate of Punjab relative to other states. Electricity transmission and distribution costs Accordingly, the editors rightly warn us that the waning economic status of Punjab will have implications for political influence in the country.

The book is an outcome of a conference organised by the Centre for Development Economics and Innovation Studies, Punjabi University in collaboration with University of California, Santa Cruz, United States (US) on the theme of rejuvenation of Punjab’s economy, held from 21 to 23 March 2014 in Patiala, Punjab. Electricity in the body causes The 20 chapters in the book, in addition to the introduction, are divided into seven parts: understanding the crisis of agrarian transition (four chapters); agrarian market and distributive outcomes (five chapters); structural transformation of Punjab’s economy (three chapters); human development (two chapters); external factors (two chapters); fiscal policy (two chapters); and finally, two chapters in the seventh part, titled “Perspectives on Rejuvenation of Punjab Economy,” serve as the conclusion. U gas station near me The 24 contributors, including two editors, are reputed scholars who have been working on the Punjab economy for many years, and, therefore, the book is an authoritative work on development economics.

Punjab needs a dramatic economic transformation to regain its past glory. Gas in oil pan Its economy flourished after the green revolution when modern production methods supported agriculture with effective research and extension systems, while the government assured markets for both, inputs and outputs. Electricity meaning The agriculture sector served as an engine of growth and dominated in terms of income and employment generation. Gas company Consequently, agricultural production increased manifold, leading to development in agro-based and related industries, resulting in high employment, equity in distribution of income, and low levels of poverty.

Unfortunately, the emphasis on agriculture continued for too long, and the general strategy to develop the industrial sector followed in rest of India was ignored by political parties in Punjab. Electricity a level physics Secular stagnation followed in agriculture and the growth rate suffered in Punjab as compared to other states in the country. Gas or electricity more expensive Successive governments in Punjab lacked the vision and a credible plan to revive growth and employment for the next generation, which resulted in political turmoil that lasted for more than a decade. Gas vs diesel mpg The editors argue that beyond the financial cost of the turmoil, there was a long-lasting human cost that was not even recognised. Electricity outage compensation The state’s social overhead capital suffered in multiple ways as there was elimination of the kind of political opposition required for vibrant democracy. Electricity usage by country Illustratively, an economic transformation agenda that had been contemplated in 1978, and was expected to be implemented during the 1980s, was sidelined because of political turmoil.

The papers in the volume clearly stress the fact that, irrespective of ideology or affiliation, the focus of political parties was on populist measures and not on structural transformation of the economy needed for sustainable income and employment. Electricity symbols ks2 worksheet Fiscal profligacy was rampant and substantial subsidies resulted in a rising debt burden. Electricity and magnetism purcell Social sectors like education and health, which are central to the process of economic growth, languished due to non-availability of investible resources. Electricity bill cost The singular dependence of Punjab’s economy on agriculture was not sustainable and alternatives were not even explored. Gas city indiana restaurants Further still, policy concentration was only on two crops, paddy and wheat, which provide food security for the nation. Electricity measurements units Thus, Punjab played an important role in ensuring food security in India as it contributed 29% of rice and 43% of wheat to India’s central pool of buffer stock.

The agrarian economy of Punjab underwent significant transformation from being traditional to a technologically modern and highly capital-intensive sector. Gas monkey However, over the period, with declining returns and rising costs, resultant reduction in surpluses led to an agrarian crisis. Electricity sources in us In view of the lack of remunerative employment alternatives, Punjab recorded a high rate of suicides, mainly among marginalised farmers and rural labourers. 10 ethanol gas problems The current pattern of over-mechanised agriculture also generated a high degree of environmental stress due to extensive use of fertilisers, pesticides, and groundwater resources. Electricity experiments for high school The rationale of subsidies, especially the free supply of electricity for exploitation of groundwater, has been challenged in the book. Z gas tijuana telefono Out of 137 development blocks, 112 were overexploited as far as groundwater was concerned and the free supply of electricity was significantly responsible for this deterioration, as 71% of Punjab was under tube well irrigation.

The initial chapters examine issues pertaining to functioning of agrarian markets, both inputs and outputs, with consequences for distributed justice. Grade 9 electricity unit review In 2012–13, 251 lakh tonnes of wheat and 85.6 lakh tonnes of paddy were transacted in the foodgrain markets of Punjab. Electricity projects for 4th graders However, to avoid wastage of foodgrains, there is need for creating new safe storage capacity and modernising existing foodgrain storage facilities. U gas cedar hill mo It is interesting to note that despite an extensive network of cooperative and commercial banks, the share of informal lenders continues to be more than 40% of the total credit extended to agriculture in Punjab. Npower gas price per unit This is because the dependency of small and marginal farmers on commission agents for meeting their credit need is high. Electricity usage calculator The book has an excellent exposition on the special role of commission agents and their nexus with moneylenders that leads to extracting farmer surplus.

Another interesting finding is that the relationship between the level of education and the size of land asset holding is high and positively correlated. Wb state electricity board recruitment This is because new opportunities of employment require education, and are concentrated in the larger-size farming category. Save electricity pictures Thus, there is concentration of income from income sources other than agriculture and this has resulted in increasing income inequality.

The section on human development discusses the failure of the government in providing adequate support for basic education and health. Gas kush Punjab is the cancer capital of India along with rising kidney failures, probably because of the reckless use of fertilisers. Gas leak in house Other diseases like HIV and AIDS are also emerging as serious concerns in Punjab. Gas vs electric oven The section on the external sector documents the role of the Punjabi diaspora on Punjab’s economy through remittances and philanthropy. Gas kansas city Nearly 2 million Punjabis live abroad and 75% of them live in Canada, the US, and the United Kingdom (UK).

On fiscal issues, Punjab is an odd combination of being a high income state with low quality of public finances; Punjab had failed to meet targets under its own fiscal responsibility legislation. Electricity electricity goodness The fiscal policy of Punjab is dismal and with no corrective measures—despite regular advisories from economists, academia, and the Reserve Bank of India—continued deterioration is a matter of concern. Gas house gang Finally, and appropriately, the chapters on the perspective on rejuvenation highlight the case of public policy paralysis in Punjab. Gas knife It is a vicious circle that is difficult to break, and the consistent flow of remittances and the prevalence of drugs and alcohol in the state dull the urge for transformation.

The book is too critical of the current political regime, and most of the articles, though rigorous and focused, provide a one-sided view, ignoring other aspects of the economy. Electricity billy elliot backing track Illustratively, in the book, the discussion on industry and services is relatively weak—the sectors that have potential to catapult Punjab to a higher orbit of growth. Electricity facts for 4th graders A brief discussion on the industry and services reflects the prevalent psychology and firm belief of most people in Punjab—academia, political leaders and policymakers—that agriculture is the sole saviour and the only course of future progress of Punjab. Electricity kanji Therefore, instead of trying alternatives, the focus of all strategies and policies has been on reviving agriculture. Gas density problems This approach, propelled by vote-bank politics, needs reconsideration as it has yielded results neither in Punjab nor in other countries in the past.

The share of agriculture will continue to shrink and, therefore, dependency on agro-related products needs to be minimised through strategies offering diversification. Electricity history pdf The need is for a complete change in mindset and out-of-box thinking, and not a Band-Aid approach in economic planning and strategy, but that is the challenge, given the vote bank politics and ideology of key political parties in Punjab. Gas national average As is well known in development economics literature, and historically demonstrated empirically, a revolutionary turning point only occurs when the crisis hits the economy. Electricity and circuits test The costs are massive, but acceptability from the masses about the futility of the existing course occurs and, then, political forces unite to chart a new course. Duke electric orlando The reforms in India, unthinkable before the balance of payments crisis of 1991, are an illustration of the compelling phenomenon. Gas station Similarly, degraded soil, depleting water tables, misery to health caused by overuse of fertilisers/pesticides, and climate change will compel policymakers in Punjab to abandon the monoculture focus on agriculture and seek diversification to other economic activities. Gas z factor It is inevitable, though, it will be too late.

The decline in Punjab’s economy over the last decade and a half is related to the deterioration in the water table, as wheat productivity is significantly correlated with availability of water for irrigation. Gas zauberberg 1 Therefore, severe criticism by serious scholars of Punjab’s economy seems appropriate. Electricity usage calculator kwh However, as deterioration has been continuing for long, no political party can be absolved of their responsibility of not attempting to balance the growth strategy, and emphasise the increasing role of industry and services. Ag gaston birmingham 120 A policy shift away from agriculture needs political courage and long-term commitment to the people. Gas vs electric water heater In a competitive political environment and with ever increasing populism, there are limited chances that Punjab’s economy will stage a recovery and stem its declining trajectory in the near future.

This book has an important message for development economies as to what not to do while pursuing growth. Electricity quiz and answers First, neglect of education and lowering investment in human capital is a matter of concern. K electric share price There is a positive correlation between human development and the level of economic growth, and the government has failed to provide adequate support to education. Hp gas Punjab, compared to other states in terms of literacy indicators, has deteriorated and was also lagging behind in literacy of females and the Scheduled Caste population. Gas refrigerator not cooling The reading, writing and arithmetic skills are also lower than the better-performing states in India. Gas 87 The schools continue to have substantial vacant positions in teaching staff. Gas x ultra strength directions Interestingly, there have been instances where efficient teaching staff from well-functioning government schools have allegedly been transferred due to pressure from local private school operators.

Second, the book conveys a general message that complacency and rigidity in policy direction need not lead to a higher level of welfare for citizens and that embracing change in the appropriate policies to meet emerging challenges, and not populist measures, leads to higher growth, eventually.

To conclude, first, Punjab has a history of resilience and has recovered from devastation many times in its glorious history. M gasbuddy app Punjab needs to redefine its development strategy, after identifying the gaps in its growth path. Wb state electricity board recruitment 2015 Second, the exercise of organising a three-day conference on the experience of Punjab is an exemplary experiment, especially when there is no Planning Commission to plan, prioritise and evaluate the policies of various governments across the country and provide advice. R gasquet tennis In fact, in the absence of a Planning Commission, more universities should undertake such rigorous research initiatives so as to identify gaps in the local/regional economy and offer recommendations to policymakers about the road map for the economy’s growth. Gasco abu dhabi email address Finally, the publishers, Springer, also need to be congratulated for bringing out a book on one state in the country. Origin electricity account It reflects the increasing importance of India and also what the different states of India have to present to development economics literature.