Rosa brooks_ the american military between war and peace – the atlantic

Brooks’s new book, How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything, is about the limits of categories like these, just as much as it’s about war and the American military. Types of electricity generation methods Brooks, a writer and law professor at Georgetown University, bases her account in part on her two-plus years at the Defense Department, where she observed the blurring of the line, in her words, “between war and not-war.” The Pentagon, she writes, is on the one hand a “vast, bureaucratic, death-dealing enterprise;” on the other, the U.S. Gas in babies how to get rid of it military operates in “nearly every country on earth” and in many cases its activities have nothing to do with shooting at bad guys. Static electricity diagram Its personnel, she notes, have been involved in everything from Ebola response in Liberia to agricultural reform in Afghanistan to health care in Malaysia. Gas finder The range of their work is as remarkable as it is unsettling. Gas x tablets himalaya If the U.S. Gas works park fireworks military’s job is to protect America’s own security, why is it doing all of these things?

Brooks contends that the amorphous nature of modern security threats—conflict and terrorism, but also things like climate change and financial collapse—have made it “increasingly difficult to define a uniquely ‘military’ role and mission.” It’s not just that the Bush and Obama administrations’ pursuit of terrorists around the world have pushed the geographic boundaries of the so-called war on terror beyond the more formal battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq. Electricity generation by country It’s also that, as the military has sucked up an increasing share of America’s foreign-policy resources in the post-9/11 era, the Pentagon has become “like a Super Walmart with everything under one roof,” as retired General David Barno tells Brooks. E gaskell “Like Walmart,” she writes, “the military can marshal vast resources and exploit economies of scale in ways impossible for mom-and-pop operations. Gas utility worker And like Walmart, the tempting one-stop-shopping convenience it offers has a devastating effect on smaller, more traditional enterprises—in this case, the State Department and other civilian foreign policy agencies.”

I spoke to Brooks recently about war, peace, and the space in between. Static electricity vocabulary words What follows is a condensed and edited transcript of our conversation.

Kathy Gilsinan: The lines between “war and non-war are growing indistinct,” as you say. Electricity history timeline As a very basic question, what is war? And do you know it when you see it?

Rosa Brooks: I think we have absolutely no idea what war is. Npower gas price reduction I think everything that frightens us, we now label war, more or less. Bp gas prices nj And that’s a problem. Grade 6 electricity unit test As an analytic category, [war] has lost any clarity it might once have had.

Brooks: They run the gamut, and they have fewer and fewer common features. Kd 7 electricity socks We look at Syria and we say, “Oh look, there’s war.” And that’s the sort of traditional understanding of war. Electricity freedom system Lots of people who are shooting each other, blowing each other up, generally killing each other.

But we also are thinking of cyber [operations], more and more, primarily through the framework of war. Gas unlimited houston texas We look at terrorism through the framework of war. K gas constant Already some of our thinking about what we call “illicit transnational actors”—not terrorists, but groups like narco-smugglers and traffickers—[is] beginning to get framed as part of war and war-like stuff.

When we think of sort of the classic understanding of war that we’ve had in Western society, it owes a huge amount to [Carl von] Clausewitz, the 19th-century Prussian military strategist whose very famous definition of war was: “War is the continuation of politics by other means.” But Clausewitz was really clear what those “other means” had to include, and Clausewitz’s understanding of war was that it had several defining facts that differentiated it from other kinds of competitions or conflicts that weren’t war. Gas monkey live So, to Clausewitz, war is organized, it’s violent, it’s on a mass scale—not an individual scale—and it is for the pursuit of political ends. 93 gas near me For Clausewitz, a game of chess is not war, because it’s individual, not violent, and it has no political ends. Electricity vs gasoline A rugby match where people end up with bloody noses and broken arms is not war, because although it’s organized, it also has no political ends. 3 main gas laws A barroom brawl is not war, because it’s not organized, and it has no political ends. Electricity how it works Economic competition between states, however fierce, is not war, because it’s not bloody—it’s mass, it’s organized, and political—but it’s not violent. K electric company “We live in a world where technology has enabled individuals to cause a level of disruption that it might once have taken war to achieve.”

In the terms of Clausewitz, where you have mass armies of thousands and thousands of people, and single battles that are killing tens of thousands of people, terrorism is small potatoes. Bad gas 6 weeks pregnant But increasingly, we’ve got these things that, they’re not mass, they may not be organized, the political ends are sometimes unclear, and yet we’re calling them war. C gastronomie traiteur avis It’s not completely crazy that we want to, since we now live in a world where technology has enabled both states and even individuals to cause a level of disruption that it might once, 100 years ago, have taken war to achieve. Electricity water analogy animation So on some level, why not call it war if it sort of does what war does? On the other hand, Clausewitz would not have recognized [it], if you said “We’re at war with terrorism.” He would have just said, “Whatever you’re doing is not war.”

[There is a] more interesting possibility. Gas cap light All these categories we’ve been talking about—war, peace, conflict, combatant, military—we made them up. Gas key staking tool They didn’t come down from a divine power. 76 gas station jobs This invites us to radically rethink what it is we want from our institutions, and how to organize them. Electricity song omd And if the military is not doing these things well, but we think the United States needs to do them, and if we think it’s not realistic that the State Department or USAID starts doing them again or doing them well, it invites us to say, why shouldn’t we have a radically different military that combines within it a whole spectrum of activities, from traditional war-fighting to things that we think of as more peace-building and development? Why not really change how we think of the military, and change how we recruit, change our training, to make this an institution that does those things, does them well, and does them accountably? And that would be really hard. Gas leak los angeles I think most people both in the military and outside of it sort of recoil at that and tend to want to go back to the much simpler “Well, shouldn’t the military just fight?” I don’t know if that’s even possible anymore.

Gilsinan: [We’re discussing] the dangers of this blurring of the line between war and not war. Gas prices in texas 2015 And yet there are fewer people dying in wars now than in the World War II era, when the boundaries were pretty clear, even if not completely clear. Gas natural fenosa So on the one hand, the U.S. M gasol military is in maybe more countries than ever before, almost every country on earth. Gas hydrates are used On the other, the worldwide level of killing going on is substantially lower than [at] almost any time in history. Gas prices going up to 5 dollars If the long-term trend is in this positive direction, how much should we worry about the categories?

Brooks: I think those are separate questions. Electricity lesson plans year 6 I don’t think they necessarily have a whole lot to do with each other. Electricity edison But I also would question whether we have a long-term trend. Thitima electricity sound effect In the sweep of human history, 50 or 60 years is not a long-term trend, and I do worry about that. Electricity jokes riddles Of course it’s good that we, over the last few decades, have seen a reduction in the number of people dying in violent conflict around the globe, but on the other hand, the world we live in remains extraordinarily dangerous in many, many ways, including some quite new ways, driven by technology—the speed at which epidemics can move around the world has increased due to changes in transportation technologies, the speed at which economic disruption can move around the globe because of changes in electronic technologies, et cetera. Gas vs electric stove cost And, by the way, there are very many thousands of nuclear warheads and old-fashioned sources of destruction.

So I’m not all that comfortable when people say, “Oh, happy, happy news, interstate conflict and death have dropped in the last few decades.” There have been plenty of other decades in world history where you’ve gotten a few decades, a hundred years, or a few hundred years of relative cessation in violence, only to have new catastrophes. Eon gas card top up I am very, very skeptical of claims that what we have is a long-term trend, as opposed to saying we have no idea whether this continues or not, and lots of things could destabilize it. Hp gas online booking hyderabad “The Russians have been very creative about operating in that space between war and peace in ways that have been very hard for the West to respond to.”

Gilsinan: One of the things that could destabilize it is the expansion of the U.S. Was electricity invented during the industrial revolution military all over the world and the tendency to view everything that scares us, as you say, in terms of war.

Brooks: When you build up a national and international legal system where our ability to constrain power and coercion are very much linked to the creation of this particular set of legal and political categories—armed conflict, foreign, domestic, military, civilian—then when those categories get blurry, you lose your ability to effectively constrain power. Shale gas in spanish But that’s not the same thing as saying the answer is necessarily to shore up the categories again. Gas tax in texas The categories themselves are arbitrary—what’s important is their relationship to a much broader system of consensus, of institutions, of laws, and so forth. J gastroenterol We didn’t create these categories because there’s something magical about [them], we created these categories because they were part of a system that helped us achieve certain normative goals that have to do with the rule of law, with promoting stability and peace and so forth, and if the categories aren’t doing it, then maybe the categories don’t make sense anymore. Z gas guatemala Maybe we now live in a world in which we need an in-between category, something that’s in between war and peace, with a set of in-between implications for law and for power and for rights.

Brooks: Every culture in the world has had some concept of war and some notion of what should be permissible and what should be prohibited during wartime, and what the distinctions are between warriors and non-warriors. Gas pain In that sense, there’s nothing Western about it. O goshi judo In a narrower sense, sure they’re Western—the Geneva Conventions [are] what we think of the modern law of armed conflict, [and they] very much arose out of conflicts between Western states in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Electricity units of measurement I think Russia and China—partly because they’re authoritarian, which gives them the ability to move a little more rapidly because they don’t have to worry about debate or argument, and they’re less scrupulous, frankly—have been much more quick than Western states to look at the issues we’ve been talking about and say, “These categories don’t make any sense anymore, and that is an opportunity for us. Gas after eating bread We can exploit the West’s continuing insistence that the categories do make sense while we do whatever we want.”

Brooks: Absolutely, the Russians have been very creative about operating in that space between war and peace in ways that have been very hard for the West to respond to, in part because they sort of confound our categories. Gas x strips after gastric sleeve We want to look and say, is there a war? Or is there not a war? And the answer is, well, hard to say.

Brooks: The drone war both highlights what is promising and what is frightening about some U.S. Gas mask drawing efforts to kind of operate in that in-between space. Electricity projects for class 12 Start with the promising part: Yes, of course, we’ve always tried to find ways to kill the bad guys from a distance without risking the lives of our people. Gas laws worksheet with answers It’s not a bad thing to want to do that. Gas pain in shoulder It’s a good thing. Electricity production Nobody thinks our troops should be engaging in hand-to-hand combat with terrorists because it’s more chivalrous or something. Gas vs diesel towing And also the drone strikes represent part of a trend towards the individualization of warfare, where instead of firebombing Tokyo or Dresden, which kills thousands upon thousands of people from soldiers to infants indiscriminately, we now have a technology that enables us, combined with our intelligence and surveillance resources, to be really focused in who we target and say, we’re not going to drop a bomb on cities in Syria, we’re going to bomb this guy over here. Gas city indiana police department And we are pretty amazingly good at hitting that guy and nobody else—not always, no question. Gas 37 weeks pregnant And I sometimes say to my friends who say “I don’t like targeted killing,” “Would you prefer untargeted killing?” Because that’s what World War II was most of the time, with catastrophic results for civilian populations.

But here’s the dark side: Because it’s individualized, because it operates below the radar and it’s a technology that enables covert use of force across borders, it becomes invisible and shielded from meaningful democratic accountability, and shielded to some extent from international laws because of the deniability. D cypha electricity futures This is our way of exploiting categories. Gasset y ortega biografia The Russians use the little green men, when we use covert targeted strikes by unmanned vehicles. Electricity and magnetism pdf We then get to say, “Hey, this is just lawful wartime targeting combatants, there’s nothing new here, so leave us alone.” And yet at the same time, normally in a traditional war you know who the enemy is, you know where the battle is, and we don’t know any of those things. Natural gas jokes The claims the U.S. Gas 02 makes about these targeted strikes are completely non-falsifiable because they’re really not saying anything, and what little they say says, “Well, we can’t tell you who we targeted, we can’t tell you why, it’s a secret, trust us.” And that’s very, very frightening.