Sabc news – why south africa is finding it difficult to wean itself off coal _tuesday 15 march 2016

South Africa has made domestic and international commitments to climate change mitigation. Zyklon b gas effects But the country continues to depend on coal-fired power plants, which provide 92% of its electricity. Electricity history united states A key challenge for the country in dealing with electricity shortages is that the bulk of power comes from coal, which is harmful for the environment and local communities.

The electricity sector is responsible for almost half of South Africa’s carbon emissions. Electricity 1 7 pdf As discussed in our recent report, it will be difficult to overcome the important contribution that coal makes to the electricity sector and the economy.

Decarbonisation in the electricity sector cannot be achieved without reducing the absolute contribution of coal-fired power. Electricity generation definition This can be achieved by introducing a range of low-carbon energy options. Gas in back relief These include wind, solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power, in addition to rapidly developing technologies for energy storage. Z gas ensenada Demand-side measurement and energy efficiency could also play a key role. Grade 6 electricity test All these measures and interventions offer significant potential.

The reasons for South Africa’s electricity crisis are long-term and complex. Gas dryer vs electric dryer operating cost They include a severe backlog in maintenance of its plants and delays in the construction of new power plants. Electricity electricity lyrics This poses several opportunities and challenges.

The opportunities it presents include increasing the contribution of renewable energy to the national power supply. Electricity generation in india But can renewable energy compete with existing coal-fired power and a potential nuclear fleet? And can renewable energy be implemented in a way that prioritises socio-economic well-being and transparent and democratic policy processes? In other words, will the country’s moves towards a lower-carbon economy incorporate a “ just transition”?

Among the challenges is the fact that South Africa’s electricity crisis is compounded by a lack of transparency in decision-making and political power struggles. 5 gases found in the environment For example, there are long-standing tensions within the ruling party and the tripartite alliance made up of the African National Congress, the trade union congress and the South African Communist Party. Sgas belfast These tensions can be found in the ideologically driven disagreement between those who want a liberalised electricity market and those who want the government to hold onto the crisis-ridden, state-owned utility, Eskom.

In addition, recent steps toward transparent and democratic energy planning and policies have been undermined. Static electricity images For example, the latest revision of the Integrated Resource Plan for electricity has been put on ice.

The electricity master plan was launched in 2011 following a prolonged and intense stakeholder engagement process. Electricity and magnetism worksheets middle school It covers the country’s total demand requirements from 2010 to 2030.

According to the plan, an electricity project must align with the technological allocations set by the country’s electricity plan to be granted a license. K electric jobs 2015 The plan includes:

South African President Jacob Zuma and Russian President Vladimir Putin have discussed the option of nuclear energy for South Africa. Electricity units calculator in pakistan Reuters

In 2013 a revised Integrated Resource Plan was put out for public comment. R gasquet This was in keeping with the expectation that the original would be updated on a biennial basis. Gas utility cost It proposed lower electricity demand because of a decline in economic growth, higher prices and increased energy efficiency. Q gastrobar leblon The revised plan also stated that commitments to long-range, large-scale investment decisions should be avoided. Gas stoichiometry practice sheet Notably the revised demand projections suggested that:

The cost of the programme has yet to be determined and it is still unclear if it will be affordable. U save gas station grants pass This programme, which is being pushed by the Presidency, is tied up in broader political wrangling. Gas x ultra strength during pregnancy Serious questions over affordability have been linked to the firing of the finance minister Nhlanhla Nene in December 2015 who opposed the programme on the grounds of cost.

If the nuclear programme is approved, it will shape the country’s electricity mix, infrastructure and related tariffs for years to come. Gas x directions While it may reduce carbon emissions in the long term, this will come at a greater cost than other options. Electricity videos for 4th grade The role of renewables

South Africa has made a significant move toward decarbonisation through a renewable energy procurement programme. Electricity prices by country Launched in 2011, the programme followed the inclusion of a carbon constraint in the country’s Integrated Resource Plan for electricity. Gas after eating eggs Since then there has been significant growth in the renewable sector backed by South Africa’s banks and private investors.

The country’s renewable energy programme is internationally celebrated as a success for the procurement of renewable energy from independent power producers. Gas station in spanish In addition the costs of these renewable energy technologies have decreased dramatically in the past four years. Electricity font Utility-scale wind and solar photovoltaics are now cost competitive with Eskom’s new-build coal.

Grid-tied, roof-top solar photovoltaics are also rapidly emerging, despite the continued absence of an appropriate regulatory framework. K electric bill These are being installed by wealthy households and businesses who are trying to buy independence from an increasingly unreliable grid and rising electricity tariffs.

Some large industrial players are also trying to connect their own generation plants to the grid through wheeling agreements. F gas certification logo These involve independent power producers selling electricity to a third party via Eskom’s grid.

These agreements suddenly seem more attractive in light of the supply-side crisis and the uncertainty of Eskom’s ability to meet the electricity demand.

The final piece of the puzzle is to ensure that all decarbonisation efforts and energy supply reach low income consumers. Electricity and magnetism study guide If the country’s tariffs continue to increase it will become even more difficult for the lower income bracket to have access to modern energy services.

Lucy Baker, Research Fellow, International Relations, The Sussex Energy Group, Centre for Global Political Economy, University of Sussex and Jesse Burton, PhD Candidate in energy and industrial policy, economic history, domestic and international coal markets, the mining and minerals sectors, and state-business relations in South Africa, University of Cape Town