Scholars have data on millions of facebook users. who’s guarding it – station finder electricity bill cost per unit


But while what happened with Mr. Kogan’s Facebook data set is now known, the fate of other information hoards is murkier. In many cases, the data was used for research or scholarly articles. The information was then sometimes left unsecured and stored on open servers that offered access to anyone. Some academics said the data could have been easily copied and sold to marketers or political consulting firms.

“The academic world is highly decentralized, and each individual, each institution, has a different way of securing their data,” Dr. Nielsen said. “Even if almost everyone in the academic community is careful and protects the data, you still can end up in a situation where someone is careless or acts in bad faith and sells access. It’s hard to imagine how Facebook stops that from happening.”

The Times reviewed half a dozen Facebook data sets compiled by academics from 2006 to 2017. One, gathered from 2015 to 2017 by researchers in Denmark and New Zealand, examined 1.3 million people in Denmark — about a quarter of the country’s population — to determine how liking one political page on Facebook could predict how someone would vote in the future. Another set, from 2013, by a group of Norwegian academics focused on the civic engagement of 21 million Facebook members on four continents.

“As a researcher you get immediate access to people’s behavior, attitudes, feelings and relationships, which are of course tempting for all,” he wrote in an email. He said many researchers lacked the technical expertise to properly secure data . Photo

In most cases, researchers assigned numbers to people whose Facebook information they had obtained to maintain anonymity. But the more data there is, the easier it is to overlay one information set with another to identify someone. One 2015 paper published in the journal Science looked at credit card spending data and found that data scientists could pinpoint 90 percent of the shoppers by name with just four random pieces of information from sites like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.

For years, Facebook had no specific policies about academics’ access to user data, though it had guidelines on working with third parties. While the company has a rule that forbids the use of scrapers, it has not enforced that policy against scholars. And at times, it has assisted researchers with studies.

Since Mr. Kogan’s actions were revealed, fueling an outcry over data privacy, Facebook has made further changes. The company has given people more control over their privacy settings. It has said it will audit all apps that collected large amounts of Facebook data, and it temporarily stopped allowing new apps to gather information from its members.

Last month, Facebook also narrowed the number of academics it would work with, saying it would collaborate with those who wanted to research the impact of social media on elections through an “independent election research commission.” Only scholars with election-related projects can apply.

“We are taking a hard look at the information apps can use when you connect them to Facebook, as well as other data practices,” Susan Glick, a Facebook spokeswoman, said in a statement. “These other data practices include academic research.”

Before social media existed, researchers hoping to study human behavior had to painstakingly seek out groups of people to examine. Social media has let them easily find masses of subjects — as well as information like their date of birth, gender and interests — and observe some of their online behavior in real time.

Aleksandr Kogan, a University of Cambridge psychology professor, obtained the data of up to 87 million Facebook users through a quiz app and sold the information to Cambridge Analytica, a political consulting firm with ties to the Trump campaign.

In Britain, researchers were doing similar work through different means. In 2007, Michal Kosinski, then deputy director at the Psychometrics Center at the University of Cambridge, worked with a colleague, David Stillwell, to create My Personality, a quiz app that offered to assess people’s personalities in exchange for data about them. It was one of the first times a quiz app had been used for obtaining Facebook members’ information.

In interviews with The Times, Dr. Kosinski and Dr. Stillwell said they took great care to keep the data they procured anonymous. Dr. Stillwell added that the information had been widely shared with other researchers, but any academic who wished to use it was vetted.

Dr. Kosinski acknowledged that data is not a physical item that is easy to control. Once a data set is created, it can be copied and shared until its original source is unknown. He said collection of information from Facebook had become widespread over the years, not only by academics but also by developers, marketers, data analytics companies and others.

A group of German academics used a scraper to harvest the profiles of 60,000 Facebook users in the New Orleans area starting in late 2008. The researchers, whose goal was to study how people’s friendships change online over time, recorded over 800,000 interactions during a two-year period. They did not respond to a request for comment.