Science in the oval office_ 1933–2016 _ science _ aaas

But equally important is the fact that the internet—or the human genome project, a biological weapons treaty, and the Clean Air Act, for that matter—doesn’t come to pass because of one person, or even one administration. Gas after eating dairy Standing up a new federal agency or funding a particular research initiative requires the assent of Congress, for one thing. Electricity pictures information And an individual legislator may deserve more credit than a sitting president for actually making something happen. Electricity lesson plans for 5th grade Policymaking also takes time: Attempts to make permanent a corporate research tax credit, for example, spanned several administrations before President Barack Obama finally signed the provision into law last year.

So what do the experts think about our list? Yale University science historian Daniel Kevles warned us about paying too much attention to Vannevar Bush’s Science, the Endless Frontier report on the future of U.S. Gas bloating pregnancy science, commissioned by President Franklin Roosevelt as World War II drew to a close. C gastronomie limonest “The Bush report is talismanic for scientists because it recommended the principle that the federal government establish peacetime support for basic scientific research and training,” he points out. Gas 99 cents “But if you read its contents, you will see that most of its particular recommendations were ignored.”

The 1945 report is venerated in part because of the overriding importance to scientists of its subject matter, that is, federal funding of university research. Gas x strips ingredients And given their political preferences, many academics tend to reflexively credit Democratic administrations when research budgets grow and blame Republicans when they stay flat or shrink.

But it’s not that simple, says Tobin Smith, vice president for policy at the Washington, D.C.–based Association of American Universities. 66 gas station Both parties have historically supported investments in basic research, he notes, and the circuitous path for the annual budget—from a president’s request to a final congressional appropriations bill up to a year later—complicates attempts to assign credit or blame for spending shifts. Gas leak For example, “you mention the America COMPETES Act,” Smith wrote us, referring to the legislation passed by a Democratic Congress in 2007 that endorsed major budget increases at three key federal research agencies. Youtube electricity “But don’t forget that [Republican] President George W. Gas vs diesel generator Bush called for ‘doubling funding for the physical sciences’ in his 2006 State of the Union address, and his American Competitiveness Initiative proposed significant increases over a 10-year period for the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy Office of Science, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.” Those increases didn’t materialize. Wd gaster battle But, in a sense, a Democratic Congress was simply following a Republican president’s lead.

The terrain surrounding space policy is equally treacherous. Gasbuddy touch The long time frames and enormous cost required to send humans to Mars, for example, afford opponents many opportunities to whittle down or kill such projects. Gas 1940 At the same time, such projects often become symbols of national pride, and the economic benefits that can accrue to many regions of the country create powerful constituencies.

The International Space Station is a good example of that complex interplay of politics and economics. National gas average 2007 President Ronald Reagan greenlighted a space station dubbed Freedom to assert U.S. Electricity videos for students hegemony in space over the Soviet Union in the 1980s. Gas 87 89 93 “But it was President [Bill] Clinton who ‘internationalized’ the space station” by inviting in other nations, including Japan and Russia, notes Chris Hill, a veteran Washington, D.C., insider on technology policy now consulting from Knoxville, Tennessee. Gas prices “That decision gave life to a near-moribund project while also creating ‘space’ for U.S. Mp electricity bill payment online bhopal and Russian scientists to work together after the fall of the USSR.”

Presidential decisions affecting how science advice is delivered to the White House may seem like the quintessential inside-the-Beltway topic. Npower electricity bill But it’s on our list because we think it matters. Gsa 2016 new orleans At the same time, deciding what actions to attribute to which president is tricky. Electricity outage chicago For example, we have credited Roosevelt with getting the ball rolling on creating a formal science advisory process, but President Dwight Eisenhower with actually setting up the first White House office to stay abreast of scientific developments.

Since then, the state of science advising has ebbed and flowed. Bp gas station President Richard Nixon disbanded his council of scientific advisers in 1973 after its views clashed with his plans for an antiballistic missile system and supersonic airliners. Electricity and magnetism worksheets 8th grade But Congress rescued it 3 years later with legislation giving the science adviser two hats—one as someone who must report to Congress as director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the other as a confidential presidential adviser.

A quarter-century later, many scientists excoriated President George W. Electrical supply company near me Bush for reorganizing his staff so that his science adviser, John Marburger, didn’t report directly to him, a move they saw as a repudiation of the law’s intent. E payment electricity bill maharashtra And in 2009, they roundly praised President Obama for restoring that direct relationship with his adviser, John Holdren. Gas variables pogil worksheet answer key It remains to be seen how the next president will choose to get his or her technical advice.