Scientists struggle to keep up with melting arctic _ climate home – climate change news

In an unusually stark warning a leading international scientific body says the Arctic climate is changing so fast that researchers are struggling to keep up. Up electricity bill payment online The changes happening there, it says, are affecting the weather worldwide.

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) says: “ Dramatic and unprecedented warming in the Arctic is driving sea level rise, affecting weather patterns around the world and may trigger even more changes in the climate system.

“ The rate of change is challenging the current scientific capacity to monitor and predict what is becoming a journey into uncharted territory. Electricity and magnetism purcell pdf ”

Its president, David Grimes, said: “ The Arctic is a principal, global driver of the climate system and is undergoing an unprecedented rate of change with consequences far beyond its boundaries.

“ The changes in the Arctic are serving as a global indicator – like ‘ a canary in the coal mine ’ – and are happening at a much faster rate than we would have expected. Electricity manipulation

He was speaking ahead of the first White House Science Ministerial meeting in Washington DC, held to develop international collaboration on Arctic science.

Climate change is causing global average temperatures to rise: 2014, 2015 and the first eight months of 2016 have all been record-breakers. Jokes gas prices The Arctic is warming at least twice as fast as the global average, and in places even faster: the Canadian town of Inuvik has warmed by almost 4°C since 1948, about four times the global figure.

The increasing loss of Arctic sea ice is threatening polar bears across their range; melting sea ice is affecting the Arctic climate in a feedback loop; and scientists expect melting permafrost will release more carbon dioxide and methane.

The WMO secretary-general Petteri Taalas said the Arctic changes had also been a factor in unusual winter weather patterns in North America and Europe. Gas laws definition chemistry He said the thawing of the permafrost could release vast quantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

“ The Arctic is a principal, global driver of the climate system and is undergoing an unprecedented rate of change with consequences far beyond its boundaries ”

Despite its certainty that the Arctic is in trouble, the WMO says it is hard to establish the implications of what is happening there. Gas density calculator The Arctic makes up about 4% of the Earth’s surface, but the WMO says it is “ one of the most data-sparse regions in the world because of its remoteness and previous inaccessibility.

That’s a worry which is echoed at the other end of the planet. Electricity el paso apartments A study led by Dr Julie Jones, from the department of geography at the University of Sheffield, UK, says limited data on Antarctica’s climate is making it difficult for researchers to disentangle changes caused by human activity from natural climate fluctuations.

It was only when regular satellite observations began in 1979 that measurement of surface climate over the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean became possible, says the study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change.

To gain a longer view, Dr Jones and her colleagues used a compilation of records from natural archives such as ice cores from the Antarctic ice sheet, which show how the region’s climate has changed over the last 200 years.

They confirmed that human-induced changes have caused the belt of prevailing westerly winds over the Southern Ocean to shift towards Antarctica.

But they conclude that for other changes, including regional warming and sea ice changes, the observations since 1979 are not yet long enough for the signal of human activity to be clearly separated from the strong natural variability.

“There are some parts of the picture which are clear, particularly the way that climate change is causing westerly winds to shift southwards, but there are still huge gaps that we need to fill in order to fully understand how much human activity is changing weather in the region.”

For me viewing it in heat-transfer a significant global thermal switch is damming Berinig Straits to reduce the flow of heat and fresher water into the basin that melts the ice from below.

This video shows recent years with the straits melting out first and freezing last: “Arctic Sea Ice timelapse from 1978-2009”; 3:58; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6j8SGs_gnFk

With a dam and levees in place to create a sea-ice refuge it’s possible to then build ice-polders where the currents and wave action is gone to allow refreezing the seabed to -2C.

All the while expanding the refuge to include the entire Chukchi Sea and half the Bering Sea using artificial islets and shoals to disrupt currents and wave action to preserve the ice longer, all this allowing sea-mammal migrations with shipping confined it must be locked-through at the dam and levees to prevent disruption of the ice, shipping lanes kept nearshore with the fresher water by levees where sensitive to the ice.

With permanent sea-ice in some ice-polders and historical winter area again, a hope is that it will alter the loopy jetstream paths in a positive manner and likewise affect how the polar-vortex behaves.

By removing so much flow volume it reduces the amount of warmer Atlantic water drawn into the Arctic basin as they are connected hydraulically, the Pacific 1/2m higher than the Arctic; the straits were closed until 12k-years ago.

So this project is a coastal engineering one of dredge-n-fill with erosion protection to remove the heat and change the Arctic atmosphere’s thermal conditions to favor cold quickly as a project versus controlling emissions.

Today’s albedo-loss is worth 25-years of USA power compared to the previous average 1980-2010 sea-ice cover, about 3,800-Terajoule-hours/yr for USA power = 95,000-Twh a year in energy, 1-Watt = 1-Joule.

Global steam capacity is some 18,000-Twh/year so the waste-heat is 36,000-Twh/year of direct heating; to compare: 36000÷95000 = 38% of albedo-loss for impacts, so, the strategy is worth a serious look.

To begin, then refine the methods all the villages being eroded away will be restored and raised, cladded for the near future of sea-level rise and to advise on all aspects of how to thread the needle and keep the ice a lot longer.