Scratch (programming language) – wikipedia 3 gas laws


Scratch encourages the sharing, reuse and combination of code, as indicated by their slogan, Imagine, Program, Share. [5] Users can make their own projects, or they may gas number choose to remix someone else’s project. Projects created and remixed with Scratch are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License. [6] Scratch will automatically give credit to the user who created the original project and program. [3]

It is part of research to design new technologies to enhance learning in after-school centers and other informal education settings, and broaden opportunities for youth who can possibly become designers and inventors. Scratch was developed based on ongoing interaction with youth and staff at Computer Clubhouses. The use of Scratch at Computer Clubhouses served as a model for other after-school centers demonstrating how informal learning settings can support the development of technological fluency. [7] History [ edit ]

The MIT Media Lab’s Lifelong Kindergarten group, led by Mitchel Resnick, in partnership with the Montreal-based consulting firm, the Playful Invention Company, co-founded by Brian Silverman and Paula Bonta, together developed the first desktop-only version of Scratch in 2003. It started as a basic coding language, with no labeled categories and no green flag. [8] Scratch was made with the intention to teach kids to code. [8]

Scratch 3 was first announced by the Scratch Team in 2016. Several public alpha versions were released between then and January 2018, after which the pre-beta Preview versions were released. [14] A beta version of Scratch 3 was released on the 1st August 2018, replacing the pre-beta preview [15] and is available for use on most browsers, with the notable exception of Internet Explorer. [16] The first release version of Scratch 3.x, 3.0 was released on January 2nd, 2019.

In 3.x, the stage’s presence is also put back onto the right-hand side of the screen like in 1.x.x versions, rather than the left as seen in 2.0.x versions. Other features include language translation, text-to-speech, and compatibility with several physical pieces of technology such as the BBC micro-bit; [16] these features are available via built-in plug-ins known as extensions. Users can gas 78 facebook also create their own extensions for Scratch 3.0 using Javascript, similar to how users could also create extensions using JavaScript for a special version of Scratch 2.0 called Scratch X (which itself is no longer supported due to the release of 3.0).

Scratch is not exclusively for creating games. With the provided visuals, programmers can create electricity transformer near house animations, text, stories, music, and more. There are already many programs which students can use to learn topics in math, history, and even photography. Scratch allows teachers to create conceptual and visual lessons and science lab assignments with animations that help visualize difficult concepts. Within the social sciences, instructors can create quizzes, games, and tutorials with interactive elements. Using Scratch allows young people to understand the logic of programming and how to creatively build and collaborate. [17]

Harvard University lecturer Dr. David J. Malan prefers using Scratch over commonly used introductory programming languages, such as Java or C, in his introductory computer science course. However, there is a limited benefit in a college level education. Malan switched his course’s language to C after the first week. [20] [21] Criticism [ edit ]

There has been a substantial amount of criticism [ by whom?] of Scratch as an introductory ‘programming language’ due to its drag-and-drop style potentially giving children (its target audience) the wrong idea of programming and being too ‘sugar-coated’ or watered-down as compared to other programming languages such as C++, C, Java or JavaScript. However, a database can be simulated with a cloud variable.

When the first version of Scratch 3 was released, it was followed by a mixed reaction from the community. Although some resistance was attributed to change in general, complaints have been measured that the redesign looks unprofessional and childish. [24] 3.x has also been panned for having a poor compatibility with projects made using older versions gas house edwards co of Scratch, including bugs and projects that don’t load. [25] [26] User interface [ edit ]

The stage area features the results (i.e., animations, turtle graphics, etc., either in a small or normal size, with a full-screen also available) and all sprites thumbnails listed in the bottom area. The stage uses x and y coordinates, with 0,0 being the stage center; the stage is 480 pixels wide, and 360 pixels tall, x:240 being the far right, x:-240 being the far left, y:180 being the top, and y:-180 being the bottom. [9] With a sprite selected at the bottom of the staging area, blocks of commands can be applied to it by dragging them from the blocks palette into the coding area, containing all the scripts associated with the selected sprite. Each can also be individually tested under different conditions and parameters via a double-click. Under the Scripts tab, all available blocks are listed and categorized. There is also an extensions tab which allows other blocks to be added.

Scratch is used in many z gas tecate telefono different settings: schools, [29] museums, [30] libraries, [3] community centers, and homes. Although Scratch’s main user age group is 8–18 years of age, Scratch has also been created for educators and parents. This wide outreach has created many surrounding communities, both physical and digital. [31] Online community [ edit ]

On Scratch, members have the capability to share their projects and get feedback. Projects can be uploaded directly from the development environment to the Scratch website and any member of the community can download the full source code to study or to remix into new projects. [32] [33] Members can also create project studios, comment, tag, favorite, and love others’ projects, follow other members to see their projects and activity, and share ideas. Projects range from games to animations to practical tools. Additionally, to encourage creation and sharing amongst users, the website frequently establishes Scratch Design Studio challenges. [34]

The MIT Scratch Team ensures that this community maintains a friendly and respectful environment for people of all ages, races, ethnicities, religions, sexual orientations, and gender identities. All members are asked to provide feedback constructively and report any content that does not follow the community guidelines. To further ensure gas 89 this community, the Scratch Team manages site activity and responds to reports on a daily basis. [35] [36]

The Scratch Wiki is a medium-sized wiki for the Scratch educational programming language and its website, history, and phenomena surrounding it. The wiki is supported by the Scratch Team (developers of Scratch), but is primarily written by Scratchers (users of Scratch) for information regarding projects and things interesting users. [38] However, Scratchers must have their accounts approved by Wiki administration to join.

The current version of Scratch does not treat procedures as first class structures and has limited file I/O options with Scratch 2.0 Extension Protocol; an experimental extension feature that allows interaction between Scratch 2.0 and other programs. [41] The Extension protocol allows interfacing with hardware boards such as Lego Mindstorms [42] or Arduino. [43] Scratch 3 only supports one-dimensional arrays, known as lists, and floating point scalars and strings are supported, but with limited string manipulation ability. There is a strong contrast between the powerful multimedia functions and multi-threaded programming style and the rather limited scope of the Scratch programming language.

Some modifications additionally introduce shifts in underlying approach to computing, such as the language Snap!, featuring first class procedures (their mathematical foundations are called also lambda calculus), first class lists electricity electricity lyrics (including lists of lists), and first class truly object oriented sprites with prototyping inheritance, and nestable sprites, which are not part of Scratch. [48] Snap! (its previous version was called BYOB) was developed by Jens Mönig [49] [50] with documentation provided by Brian Harvey [51] [52] from University of California, Berkeley and has been used to teach The Beauty and Joy of Computing introductory course in CS for non-CS-major students. [53] See also [ edit ]