Self-efficacy natural electricity examples

####

Self efficacy is commonly defined as the belief in one’s capabilities to achieve a goal or an outcome. Students with a strong sense of efficacy are more likely to challenge themselves with difficult tasks and be intrinsically motivated. These students will put forth a high degree of effort in order to meet their commitments, and attribute failure to things which are in their control, rather than blaming external factors. Self-efficacious students also recover quickly from setbacks, and ultimately are likely to achieve their personal goals. Students with low self-efficacy, on the other hand, believe they cannot be successful and thus are less likely to make a concerted, extended effort and may consider challenging tasks as threats that are to be avoided. Thus, students with poor self-efficacy have low aspirations which may result in disappointing academic performances becoming part of a self-fulfilling feedback cycle. ( Bandura ( more info) ) [Margolis and McCabe, 2006] How can students gain self-efficacy?

Emotional state -A positive mood can boost one’s beliefs in self-efficacy, while anxiety can undermine it. A certain level of emotional stimulation can create an energizing feeling that can contribute to strong performances. Teachers can help by reducing stressful situations and lowering anxiety surrounding events like exams or presentations.

Research shows that the type of learning environment and teaching method can improve self efficacy in the classroom ( Bandura ( more info) ). A similar result was reported by Fencl and Scheel . They describe a required, nonmajors’ physics course where the effects of different teaching methods on the classroom climate and self-efficacy were measured. The students’ response indicated that a question and answer format, inquiry-based lab activities and conceptual (rather than quantitative) problems had a significant effect on creating a positive climate in the classroom. In addition to those pedagogies, collaborative learning and the use of electronic applications showed a positive correlation with increased self-efficacy in their student sample. Fencl and Scheel point out that the teaching methods that showed a measurable positive effect share the common feature of engaging students in a comfortable or creative manner. Moreover, pedagogies such as collaborative learning and inquiry-based activities have also been shown to have a strong correlation with how well students learn physics [Fencl and Scheel, 2005] .

Bandura also concludes that cooperative learning strategies have the dual outcome of improving both self-efficacy and academic achievement. "Cooperative learning structures, in which students work together and help one another also tend to promote more positive self-evaluations of capability and higher academic attainments than do individualistic or competitive ones." ( Bandura ( more info) )

In his 1994 textbook chapter, Albert Bandura notes that certain well-worn pedagogical practices may have the unintended effect of diminishing the self-efficacy of students who do not reside at the top of the class academically. These include:

• Generalized, "lock-step" instruction that is inflexible and does not allow for student input. A formulaic type of instructional setting makes it harder for students to ask questions or become involved in the process. The result may be that if a student becomes confused or discouraged, they are likely to remain so.

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Academic Contexts ( more info)

This site contains an extensive historical overview about self-efficacy and its place in education. Topics include the origins of the theory, current research and educational applications. One of the author’s conclusions is that the educational system would benefit from additional focus on self-efficacy in students.

This article suggests practical solutions to improve the motivation of struggling learners. Specifically, the authors present strategies such as using peers as role models, teaching specific learning strategies, presenting the students with options and choices, communicating recent success, and more. These tactics can strengthen struggling learners’ beliefs in their academic abilities and increase their willingness to engage in academic tasks.

Self-efficacy is a key predictor of achievement and retention in most academic areas, including the sciences. In this study, the effects of teaching strategies on self-efficacy and course climate were examined. The teaching methods that made significant contributions to self efficacy were question and answer, collaborative learning, conceptual problems, electronic applications and inquiry lab activities.

This textbook chapter provides a synthesis of educational psychology research as it relates to students’ beliefs in their own abilities. The authors describe self-efficacy and its relation to other motivation constructs and explain the role of various sources of and influences on self-efficacy. The effects of various pedagogical practices are discussed, including a description of specific methods that improve self-efficacy. The role of gender and ethnicity on self-efficacy are also discussed.

This essay examines the topic of self-efficacy in the context of teachers’ self-efficacy and how that translates into their performance. The author asserts that highly efficacious teachers tend to be more open to new ideas, more willing to experiment with new methods to better meet the needs of their students, and more committed to teaching. They persist when things do not go smoothly and are more resilient in the face of setbacks. And they tend to be less critical of students who make errors and to work longer with a student who is struggling.