Ship to ship transfer guide for petroleum, chemicals and liquefied gases gas jewelry

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3 Section 1 General principles © Copyright CDI, ICS, OCIMF, SIGTTO 2013 1.1 Introduction The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to Masters and operators of vessels undertaking side-by- side ship to ship (STS) transfer operations of crude oil, petroleum products, chemicals and liquefied gases, both at sea and in port. Other parties may also benefit from studying these guidelines. Such parties may include ship charterers, traders, STS service providers and those contracting STS service providers electricity trading strategies. Figure 1.1: Ship to ship transfer at anchor The structure of this Guide has been developed such that all general references to STS operations that are applicable irrespective of the cargo being transferred are included in the main section of the document. Recommendations that relate to a particular cargo are included in separate appendices for crude oil and petroleum products, chemicals, liquefied petroleum o gastro gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The advice contained in this Guide may be supplemented by instructions from individual ship operators in order that particular aspects of their own procedures can be covered. The requirements of MARPOL Annex I, chapter 8, The Prevention of Pollution During Transfer of Oil Cargo Between Oil Tankers at Sea (reference 35), should be adhered to for all applicable operations involving oil cargoes. The requirement for vessels to be provided with an STS operations plan should be considered for adoption by vessels involved in the STS transfer of other cargoes as recommended best practice. For gasco abu dhabi further guidance on the content of STS operations plans, reference should be made to appendix A. 1.2 Background The STS transfer of liquid cargoes in port and at sea has become common practice. Experience gained from these regular operations has proved that STS transfers are safe given the use of suitable equipment and compliance with proper procedures, including the establishment of safe environmental operating limits. Amendments to MARPOL entered into force on 1 January 2011 and contain requirements relating to the at sea transfer of Annex I (oil) cargoes between vessels (see appendix A). 12 Ship to Ship Transfer Guide for Petroleum, Chemicals and Liquefied Gases © Copyright CDI, ICS, OCIMF, SIGTTO 2013 In cases where the operation involves gas x strips ingredients similarly sized ships, mitigation measures should be considered in order to prevent bridge wing contact. Mitigating measures may include longitudinally offsetting the manifolds and using larger diameter fenders to increase the stand-off between the two ships. Appendix L provides an example of a compatibility questionnaire. Although the questionnaire is intended for use when planning an STS transfer between liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessels, much of the information contained may be relevant when planning transfers involving other cargoes. 2.1.2 Ship to ship transfer operations involving vessels of a similar length For the purposes of STS operations, vessels having a length overall (LOA) differential of less than 10% would generally be considered as being of a similar length. The risk assessment should include mitigation measures for the operation, such as those detailed below, in order to reduce the risk to an acceptable level: • Identification of optimum electricity generation by country mooring arrangement. Due to the head lines being in a breast line configuration, it may be necessary to deploy additional lines in a fore and aft direction to compensate. • Identification of optimum securing arrangements for fenders to ensure that mooring arrangements are not compromised due to a lack of useable chocks/fairleads. • The adjustment of the fore and aft positions of the ships so that the bridge wings are offset. In doing so, it should be ensured that all the primary fenders electricity in indian states will rest on the parallel body of both the vessels throughout the operation and that hose lengths will be sufficient to accommodate the resulting manifold offset. • For transfer operations conducted at anchor with one of the vessels offset, consideration should be given to the need for extra head lines to counter the additional forces on the vessel with the exposed bow. • Provision of larger diameter fenders to increase separation distances. • The reduction of limiting environmental parameters, once the lead and effectiveness of the mooring line configuration have been considered. Figure 2.1: Ship to ship transfer operation electricity and magnetism study guide 8th grade 15 Section 2 Conditions and requirements © Copyright CDI, ICS, OCIMF, SIGTTO 2013 Information that will determine operational management action should include, but not be limited to: • Visibility. • Wind speed and direction. • Wave and swell height, period and direction. • Weather forecasts. Figure 2.3: Final approach of vessels underway To ensure that the latest relevant forecast information is available for transfers undertaken at sea, it is recommended that service providers and ship operators utilise specialised weather forecasting services, where available, to provide detailed information on the present and forecast conditions for the STS area. This information should include details of the wind, wave and swell analysis of the location. The information should be distributed to interested parties involved in the operation as it may have operational and commercial implications. It is impractical to lay down limiting weather conditions under which STS transfer operations can be carried out. Much will depend on the effect of the sea and swell on the fenders or mooring lines and the rolling movements induced in the participating d cypha electricity ships, taking into account their relative freeboard and displacement. Factors for at sea operations also include the physical sizes of the ships and their manoeuvring capabilities, the speed of the approaching gas and sand weather, free surface effect, sloshing limitations, manning and workboat capabilities. Experience indicates that STS operations in locations subject to long period waves should be treated with caution. It should be expected that mooring loads will increase with wave period or as the period of wave encounter increases. If cargo transfer is to take place at anchor the combined effect of current and weather conditions on the yawing movements of the anchored ship and the ultimate gas dryer vs electric dryer calculator tension on the anchor cable should be considered. Throughout any berthing operation the visibility should be sufficient to permit safe manoeuvring, taking into account safe navigation and collision avoidance requirements. Manoeuvres should only start when the relevant personnel are satisfied that conditions are suitable for mooring and cargo transfer. The Master of any ship involved in the operation retains the right to suspend operations and unmoor should he have concerns regarding the safety of remaining alongside in the prevailing weather and sea state conditions. 21 Section 3 Safety © Copyright CDI, ICS, OCIMF, SIGTTO 2013 3.1 General For all ship to ship (STS) transfer operations each, Master remains at all times responsible for the safety of his own ship (its crew, cargo and equipment) and should not permit safety to be compromised gas city indiana weather by the actions of others. Each Master should ensure that the procedures recommended by this guide are followed and, in addition, that internationally accepted safety standards are maintained. In this regard, procedures and practices contained in relevant accepted industry guidance should be adhered to including, as appropriate: • International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) (reference 1). • Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) (reference 2). • Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas) (reference 3). • Liquefied Gas Handling Principles (reference 4). • International Safety Guide for Inland Navigation Tank-barges and Terminals (ISGINTT) (reference 5). • Mooring Equipment Guidelines (reference 6). Figure 3.1: Ship to ship transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) 3.2 Risk assessment 3.2.1 Risk assessment 3 main gas laws of transfer location STS transfers undertaken at sea may pose specific issues that need to be addressed as they often take place in locations that may be beyond the assistance of normal port services. A risk assessment should be undertaken for each proposed STS location. The outcome of the risk assessment should be factored into the development of operational procedures specific to the location, including implementation of appropriate safeguards to ensure that identified risks are effectively managed.