Simultaneous hyperthermia-chemotherapy with controlled drug delivery using single-drug nanoparticles _ scientific reports

Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer, accounting for 3% of all cancers worldwide. Gas prices The incidence of new patients is increasing, particularly in developing countries 1, 2. Mp electricity bill payment online bhopal Tumors are located in the oral cavity in 48% of cases, and 90% of these are oral squamous cell carcinoma. Npower electricity bill Oral malignancy, including tongue cancer, is associated with severe morbidity and has a long-term survival of less than 50%, in spite of advances in the treatment of oral cancer by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Gsa 2016 new orleans The survival ratio of patients remains very low, mainly due to lymph node metastasis 2. Electricity outage chicago Surgical removal of the cancer tissues is the gold standard, but involves various complications, such as dysphagia or dysarthria. Bp gas station Therefore, more effective treatment for oral cancer, with fewer complications, needs to be developed.
Hyperthermia is a promising cancer therapy, in which cancer tissues are exposed to a slightly raised temperature 3, 4, thereby increasing their susceptibility to radio- or chemo-therapy. Electricity and magnetism worksheets 8th grade The most commonly used heating method in clinical practice is capacitive heating with a radiofrequency electric field 5. Electrical supply company near me However, a major technical problem with this method is difficulty in heating the target tumor to the desired temperature without damaging the surrounding normal tissues. E payment electricity bill maharashtra This is because the electromagnetic energy must be directed from an external source, and thus must penetrate through normal tissues, causing an unavoidable temperature gradient. Gas variables pogil worksheet answer key Although other hyperthermia modalities, including radiofrequency ablation and ultrasound hyperthermia, have been widely developed 6, 7, 8, the efficacy of these modalities is limited to the size and depth of tumors, and major disadvantages include the inability to precisely target a specific tumor site by directing heat exposure specifically to the tumor.
In order to overcome these challenges, magnetic nanoparticles have been developed 9, 10, 11. Gas pump heaven Magnetic nanoparticles generate heat when exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) as a result of hysteresis and relaxation losses, resulting in heat production 10, 12, 13, 14. Q gas station Magnetic particles may be directly injected at the site of a tumor, or delivered to the site by a magnet, followed by AMF exposure to produce heat within the tumor, enabling specific thermal ablation in the target area. F gas regulations 2015 The particles are usually made of iron oxide (IO) 15, and do not have anti-cancer activity per se in the absence of an AMF. Gas house pike frederick md Micelles containing IO particles and anti-cancer drugs have been investigated 16, but drugs may be rendered therapeutically ineffective by heat-induced degradation.
The key objective of drug delivery is to increase the concentration of a therapeutic agent in the tumor, because this not only enhances the anti-cancer effect, but also reduces toxic side effects. Electricity nightcore lyrics In 1913, Paul Ehrlich proposed the classic concept of drug delivery by a carrier that would transport therapeutic drugs specifically to the target organ 17. Gas tax in new jersey Since then, numerous drug delivery technologies have been developed to accomplish this objective, including micelles, liposomes, antibody drugs, affinity targeting, and macromolecular drug carriers. Electricity quiz ks3 However, these technologies face difficulties due to the inherent instability of the carriers and limited delivery efficacy.
In order to overcome these problems, we have focused on novel magnetic nanoparticles consisting of μ-oxo N,N′-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine iron (Fe(Salen)). Gas prices going up or down As we previously reported 18, Fe(Salen) nanoparticles act as a novel nano-magnetic agent with direct anti-cancer activity. Electricity and magnetism notes The magnetic property of Fe(Salen) enables simple drug delivery using a readily available permanent magnet. Gaz 67 dakar The anti-cancer activity is similar to that of cisplatin, and this agent exhibits potent cytotoxicity, presumably via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause DNA damage. Gas and water Importantly, the anti-cancer property of Fe(Salen) nanoparticles is stable at temperatures up to around 100 °C. Electricity worksheets grade 6 Their magnetic character is also stable during repeated heat exposures, suggesting that Fe(Salen) nanoparticles might be available for simultaneous chemotherapy and hyperthermic therapy. Gas mask ark Such combination therapy is potentially very effective, since, for example, hyperthermia has been shown to enhance cellular uptake of anti-cancer drugs 19.
In this study, we examined the feasibility and effectiveness of combined hyperthermia-chemotherapy with magnetically guided Fe(Salen) nanoparticles to treat tongue cancer in a rabbit model, because the tongue is readily accessible within the oral cavity, and thus it is easy to apply a magnet and an AMF. Gas monkey monster truck body Our results indicate that this strategy is indeed highly effective.
(a) Distribution of Fe(Salen) and cellular death in the presence of a magnet. Electricity lessons grade 6 Distributions of Fe(Salen) and cytotoxic effect were compared between the center ( center), where the magnet was positioned, and the edge ( edge) of each culture dish. Impact of electricity in the 1920s Upper photo: distribution of various concentrations of Fe(Salen) in a dish with a magnet. Gasket t 1995 Middle photo: Cell viability in the presence of a magnet. Electricity synonyms Cell viability was determined in terms of luciferase activity by intensity measurement with an IVIS imaging system. Gastronomia y cia Lower photo: Cell viability in the absence of a magnet. Electricity and magnetism worksheets 4th grade Bar graphs show the determination of cell viability with IVIS ( center and edge). Electricity billy elliot karaoke with lyrics (n = 4, *** p < 0.001) Note that the cytotoxicity of Fe(Salen) nanoparticles was enhanced in the center. Gas 66 In contrast, the cell viability at the edge of culture dishes is maintained in the presence of a magnet compared to that of in the absence of a magnet. Gas leak chicago (b) A Jacket used for drug delivery in mice. Arkla gas pay bill Circle shows the site where the permanent magnet is installed. 6 gases ( c) Representative photo of skin tissues at the site beneath the magnet in mice which had been injected with Fe(Salen) via the tail vein. Electricity in the 1920s Fe(Salen) was accumulated beneath the magnet at the tumor location. Electricity physics definition Mice were intravenously injected with Fe(Salen) (5 mg/kg) and wore a jacket for three days. Gas after eating Accumulation of Fe(Salen) nanoparticles was examined by Berlin blue staining. Electricity wikipedia simple english Cont; control, iv; Fe(Salen) was injected, Magnet; jacket was worn, iv Magnet; Fe(Salen) was injected and the jacket was worn. Electricity invented timeline High (left, calibration bar 50 μm) and low magnification (right, 200 μm) images are shown. In the current study, we demonstrated that the three-fold strategy of chemotherapy with Fe(Salen) nanoparticles, magnetically guided delivery of the nanoparticles to the tumor, and AMF-induced heating of the nanoparticles to induce local hyperthermia exhibited a potent anti-cancer effect in a rabbit model of tongue cancer in vivo. P gasket 300tdi It is noteworthy that a high drug dose was not necessary for successful results in either application of the electromagnet or AMF exposure. Gas jet We used an electromagnet instead of a permanent magnet to induce hyperthermia in this model, because a permanent magnet was difficult to apply onto the tongue surface for a long time. Electricity notes physics Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that a simple permanent magnet was effective in the leg tumor model. Hp gas online login Thus, in future trial with tumors of the extremities or the trunk, it should be possible to accumulate Fe(Salen) nanoparticles sufficiently by using a simple jacket equipped with a small permanent magnet. The anti-cancer and magnetic properties of Fe(Salen) nanoparticle were unaffected by AMF exposure, in marked contrast to conventional micelle-based drugs containing magnetic particles and anticancer drugs or antibody drugs, which are readily degraded and lose their potency upon exposure to heat. Grade 6 electricity In particular, conventional inorganic particles lack intrinsic anti-cancer effects, and so additional procedures to transport/conjugate drug compounds are required 16. Electricity word search pdf Notably, the use of Fe(Salen) nanoparticles enables anticancer and hyperthermic therapies to be performed simultaneously, and specifically at the cancer site; this is a major advantage compared to conventional hyperthermal approaches. Some issues remain before clinical application will be possible. Electricity generation Firstly, Fe(Salen) nanoparticles as a drug compound are still at non-GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) status at this time. Gas in oil lawn mower Thus, we should establish a protocol for synthesis of Fe(Salen) nanoparticles with appropriate magnetic properties, particle size, and purity to meet GMP standards for human use. Ortega y gasset obras completas Our elemental analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of Fe(Salen) samples 18 indicated that they are highly pure (>95%) and do not contain metals other than iron that may potentially exhibit magnetism or cytotoxicity. Static electricity in water Secondly, the origin of the magnetic properties needs further investigation. Electricity and circuits class 6 cbse Although Fe(Salen) possess a crystal structure that accords with the classical Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rule 21 regarding magnetic interactions 18, we do not know whether this is necessary and sufficient. Mp electricity bill payment online jabalpur Further collaborative investigation with physicists may be necessary in order to develop future drug compounds for magnetically guided delivery. Gas 47 cents Thirdly, therapeutic protocols for hyperthermia need to be optimized to for human patients. Electricity and circuits physics The current protocol applies hyperthermic therapy between bouts of minimally invasive chemotherapy. Gas vs electric water heater savings It may be desirable to develop a more effective AMF generator or coil to optimize the efficacy of drug delivery and hyperthermia.
In the current study, we have established that Fe(Salen) nanoparticles are highly effective for treatment of tongue cancer in a rabbit model. Gas vs electric oven efficiency Fe(Salen) may also be suitable for magnetization of existing anti-cancer drugs, as we have recently demonstrated by synthesizing a magnetized derivative of paclitaxel (Umemura et al. Gas in dogs symptoms unpublished observations). Electricity bill saudi electricity company It should be possible to extend this approach to other widely used anti-cancer drugs to enable magnetically controlled delivery and/or hyperthermic therapy, and such an approach is expected to offer increased therapeutic efficacy with reduced side effects, in principle. Static electricity zap Such agents would be promising tools for “on-demand” cancer therapy 22, using unique metal ligand complex-based anti-cancer drugs with intrinsic magnetic properties to target specific cancers in a highly controllable manner.