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Disasters such as floods, wildfires, tornadoes, earthquakes, storms, and hurricanes can cause severe damage to the electric power grid. To keep a building running so it can serve as a shelter or evacuation facility during a power outage, resilience planning is essential. Typically diesel generators are installed to provide backup power, but such systems have some major drawbacks. For example, they do not provide any benefits during normal operation, they utilize fossil fuel and thereby emit carbon, and most importantly, they can operate only until the diesel tank is empty. hp gas online refill booking status A system of photovoltaic (PV) arrays combined with battery storage, offers a more sustainable solution. 

The SolarResilient tool provides building owners and managers with an estimation of what PV and battery capacities are needed to provide their desired resilience. The recommended capacities are translated into required roof top and parking lot area for the PV array, and basement or garage space for the battery system. This gives the user an idea of what system sizes are feasible for their building. 

Please note that this tool should be used only for high-level estimation of required system sizes – it is not suitable to use as the basis for any system design. The tool does not provide an economic analysis. 3 gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect If you are interested in taking the design further, we recommend that you undertake a detailed feasibility study for your building and work with vendors to determine costing and economic analysis.

The SolarResilient tool includes only one year of data in the calculation, and degradation over time is therefore not accounted for. However, the advanced inputs section gives the user the option to include a degradation caused by environmental factors, such as ashes and dust (default is set to 0%). This degradation should be used if smoke from large fires etc. is to be considered in the calculation.

• Rooftop area: 15 W installed rooftop PV per sq.ft. of unshaded roof. The user should enter only the available roof space for PV, not the total roof area. gas pedal lyrics As a rough guide, being able to use 40 to 60% of the total roof space for PV would be typical. The remaining area may be shaded, required for fire department access, or occupied by other miscellaneous items.

To simplify the calculations the batteries are assumed to run at a charge/discharge cycling of 0.25C. This means that the batteries can discharge 25% of their maximum capacity each hour, e.g. a 200 kWh battery system can discharge up to 50 kW during 4 hours before it needs to be recharged. The charge rate is assumed to be the same as the discharge rate.

The risk of the batteries being discharged at the beginning of the outage depends on how they are used during normal operation. The user can choose from three grid service alternatives (described below). Each option determines the state of charge at the first hour of the outage, which is used for sizing of the battery system. electricity production in the us A lower minimum state of charge level will result in larger battery capacity to compensate for the risk of the batteries being discharged when the outage occurs. The minimum state of charge assumptions are based on feedback from industry standards.

• Frequency regulation: This is an ancillary service where the building owner is paid by the independent system operator to help balance the grid. For this service the batteries are typically not discharged as deeply as for demand charge mitigation, but can have several discharge and charge cycles per hour. The lowest state of charge is assumed to be 50%.

• Quick The user inputs the annual electricity peak demand of the building (typically found on the electricity bills), the location of the building (by clicking on the climate zone map), and percentage of the total electrical load that the user wants to support during a disaster event. The tool creates an hourly emergency load profile based on an electrical load profile for a typical office building in the chosen climate zone, scaled to match the entered peak demand and desired load percentage. The default profiles are modeled load data representing the Department of Energy’s large office reference building for more information. Other building types are not modeled; however, this option allows a quick sizing estimation only.

• Standard The user uploads the actual electricity profile for the building. This data must contain hourly or 15-minute data for a full year, starting at midnight on January 1, to match the hourly PV data used in the calculations. gas vs electric heat All of the data must be in column A, and there must be no other data in the file, such as dates and times. The user also enters the percentage of the total electrical load that the user wants to support during a disaster event. The tool creates an hourly emergency load profile by multiplying the uploaded electricity data with the emergency load percentage.

The PVWatts Calculator provides estimated PV electricity generation for different locations throughout the United States. gas density The user inputs information about the location of the building (city, state, zipcode), which is used in the PVWatts Calculator to access hourly output data for 1 kW AC of installed PV array for that specific location. 

Some buildings (for example police and fire stations) might have emergency diesel generators. If that is the case, it is possible for the user to include the generator output in the calculations and thereby reduce the PV capacity required for desired resilience. The user enters the rated capacity and the available fuel storage, and the tool calculates the hourly output based on following assumptions:

To make the most use of the battery system, it should also be used during non-emergency mode. The chosen grid service (see the Assumptions tab) affects the risk of the batteries being discharged when a power outage strikes. gas density of air To account for the worst case scenario in the system sizing calculations, the tool assumes the batteries to be at their lowest level typical for each grid service, which means that extra capacity needs to be added to compensate for this risk.

The probability that the calculated system will provide desired resilience (i.e. support the emergency load) varies depending on when the disaster strikes. The variations are due to seasonal and daily changes in load and PV output, as well as chosen grid service. To determine whether the proposed system provides desired resilience, the system duration for an outage happening every hour of the year is calculated. The probability of providing resilience for a certain number of days is presented in the bar chart.