Sonia gandhi – wikipedia gas and water llc


Sonia Gandhi pronunciation ( help k electric jobs· info) ( née Maino; born 9 December 1946) is an Indian politician of Italian descent. A member of the Nehru–Gandhi family by way of her marriage to Rajiv Gandhi, she is a former president of the Indian National Congress. She took over as the party leader in 1998, seven years after her husband’s assassination, and remained in office for a record nineteen years, a period that was characterised by the party’s renewed adherence to the centre-left position on the Indian political spectrum. [a]

Born in a small village near Vicenza, Italy, Gandhi was raised in a Roman Catholic Christian family. After completing her primary education at local schools, she moved to Cambridge for higher education and married Rajiv Gandhi in 1968. She later took up Indian citizenship and began living with her mother-in-law, the then-Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, at the latter’s New Delhi residence. Sonia Gandhi, however, continued to stay away from the public sphere, even during the years of her husband’s premiership.

Following her husband’s assassination, Gandhi was invited by Congress leaders to lead the party, but she refused and stayed away from politics. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997 after constant prodding from the party; the electricity for beginners pdf following year, she was nominated for party president, and elected over Jitendra Prasada. [b] Under her leadership, the Congress went on form the government post the 2004 elections in coalition with other centre-left political parties. Gandhi has since been credited for being instrumental in formulating the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was re-elected to power in 2009. Gandhi declined the premiership following the 2004 victory; she instead led the ruling alliance and the National Advisory Council. [c]

Over the course of her career, Gandhi presided over the advisory councils credited for the formation and subsequent implementation of such rights-based development and welfare schemes as the Right to information, Food security bill, and MNREGA, as she drew criticism related to the Bofors scandal and the National Herald Case. Her foreign birth has also been a subject of much debate and controversy. [d] Gandhi’s active participation in politics began to reduce during the latter half of the UPA government’s second term owing to health concerns. She stepped down as the Congress president in December 2017, but continues to lead the party’s Parliamentary committee. Although she never held any public office in the government of India, Gandhi has been widely described as one of the most powerful politicians in the country, and is often listed among the most powerful women in the world. [e]

Sonia Maino [19] was born on 9 December 1946 to Stefano and Paola Maino in Lusiana (in Maini street), a historically Cimbrian-speaking village 100 gas vs 10 ethanol about 35 km from Vicenza in Veneto, Italy. [20] [21] Sonia spent her adolescence in Orbassano, a town near Turin, and was raised in a traditional Roman Catholic Christian family. She attained primary education attending the local Catholic schools; Sister Maria, one of her early teachers described her as a diligent little girl, [who] studied as much as was necessary. [19]

Stefano, who was a building mason established a small construction business in Orbassano. [22] He had fought against the Soviet military alongside Hitler’s Wehrmacht on the eastern front in World War II, was a loyal supporter of Benito Mussolini and Italy’s National Fascist Party. The family house had leather bound books on writings and speeches of Mussolini. [22] Stefano had named Sonia and her elder sister Nadia in the memory of the Italian participation in the Eastern Front. [19] He died in 1983. [23] Gandhi has two sisters who still reside in Orbassano along with their mother gas vs diesel engine. [24]

Gandhi completed her schooling at the age of 13; her final report card read: intelligent, diligent, committed […] would succeed well at the high school for teachers. She aspired to become a flight attendant. [19] In 1964, she went to study English at the Bell Educational Trust’s language school in the city of Cambridge. The following year, she met Rajiv Gandhi at the Varsity Restaurant, where she was working as a part-time waitress, while he was enrolled for an engineering degree in the Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. [25] In this context, the Times, London reported, Mrs Gandhi was an 18-year-old student at a small language college in Cambridge in 1965, […] when she met a handsome young engineering student. [26] The couple married in 1968, in a Hindu ceremony, following which she moved into the house of her mother-in-law and then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. [27] [1]

She spent considerable amount of time with her mother-in-law, Indira Gandhi; she recalled her experience in a 1985 interview with the Hindi-language magazine Dharmyug, She [Indira] showered me with all her affection and love. [28] Soon after the latter’s ousting from office in 1977 in the aftermath of the Indian Emergency, the Rajiv family contemplated to move abroad for a short time. [29] When Rajiv entered politics in 1982 after the death of his younger brother Sanjay Gandhi in a plane crash on 23 June 1980, Sonia continued to focus on her family and avoided all contact with the public. [30] Political career Wife of the prime minister

After Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in 1991 and Sonia Gandhi refused [ citation needed] to become Prime Minister electricity explained, the party settled on the choice of P. V. Narasimha Rao who became leader and subsequently Prime Minister. Over the next few years, however, the Congress fortunes continued to dwindle and it lost the 1996 elections. Several senior leaders such as Madhavrao Sindhia, Rajesh Pilot, Narayan Dutt Tiwari, Arjun Singh, Mamata Banerjee, G. K. Moopanar, P. Chidambaram and Jayanthi Natarajan were in open revolt against incumbent President Sitaram Kesri and many of whom quit the party, splitting the Congress into many factions. [36]

In May 1999, three senior leaders of the party ( Sharad Pawar, P. A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar) challenged her right to try to become India’s Prime Minister because of her foreign origins. In response, she offered to resign [ citation needed] as party leader, resulting in an outpouring of support and the expulsion from the party of the three rebels who went on to form the Nationalist Congress Party. [38]

In the 2004 general elections, Gandhi launched a nationwide campaign, criss-crossing the country on the Aam Aadmi (ordinary man) slogan in contrast to the ‘India Shining’ slogan of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) alliance. She countered the BJP asking Who is India Shining for?. In the election, she was re-elected by a 200,000-vote margin over nearest rival, in the electricity receiver definition Rae Bareli. [44] Following the unexpected defeat of the NDA, she was widely expected to be the next Prime Minister of India. On 16 May, she was unanimously chosen to lead a 15-party coalition government with the support of the left, which was subsequently named the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). [ citation needed]

On 23 March 2006, Gandhi announced her resignation from the Lok Sabha and also as chairperson of the National Advisory Council under the office-of-profit controversy and the speculation that the government was planning to bring an ordinance to exempt the post of chairperson of National Advisory Council from the purview of office of profit. [49] She was re-elected from her gas city indiana police department constituency Rae Bareli in May 2006 by a margin of over 400,000 votes. [50] [51]

Under her leadership, the Congress-led UPA won a decisive majority in the 2009 general elections with Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister. [55] The Congress itself won 206 Lok Sabha seats, which was then the highest total by any party since 1991. [56] She was re-elected to a third term as a member of parliament representing Rae Bareli. [57]

Gandhi returned to active politics for Indian National Congress’ campaign for the Karnataka Legislative Assembly election, 2018. Having stayed away from campaigning for elections since 2016, Gandhi addressed a rally at Bijapur, which comprised five legislation assembly constituencies; while Congress emerged as the second largest party in the election with 78 seats behind the BJP, the former won four or the five assembly seats from Bijapur. [67] [68] Gandhi also played an active role in orchestrating a post-poll alliance with the Janata Dal (Secular). [69] Personal life