South african oil and gas_ part one _ energy global

South Africa’s oil and natural gas sectors tend to be overshadowed by the coal industry, because coal provides for over 70% of the country’s primary energy needs. Gas explosion In the past, however, coal’s share of the primary energy mix has been above 80%, so considerable effort has been made to diversify the energy industry. Electricity electricity song A number of initiatives and programmes have been launched to expand oil and gas production, and, in recent years, a significant shale gas resource has been identified. Gas water heater reviews 2013 With international crude oil prices at a low ebb, however, there is less incentive to develop these reserves. E gasoline This is not to say that it cannot be done. Electricity balloon experiment South Africa has a history of developing unconventional energy resources in its bid for greater self-sufficiency, and the country has shown its ability and determination to invent and employ technology to diversify its fuel mix.

This article focuses on South Africa’s energy sector, with emphasis on liquid fuels. Electricity calculator But, when discussing South Africa’s energy markets, one must bear in mind, even when it is not about coal, it is about coal. Gas 91 Dominance of coal in primary energy

Coal typically has provided for 75 – 80% of South Africa’s primary energy requirements, and only since 1996 has coal’s share been reduced to the 71 – 75% range. Electricity magnetism and electromagnetic theory pdf During the oil price shocks, coal was promoted as a substitute for imported oil, since the country had had such limited success in oil prospecting on the domestic front.

Primary energy demand grew at rates averaging 4 – 4.5% during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Grade 9 electricity test and answers Growth in consumption slowed to 1.6%/y during the 1990s, and it picked up to 2.3%/y from 2000 – 2010. E 87 gasoline Between 2010 and 2014, primary energy use has been roughly flat, amounting to 126.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 2010, and 126.7 million toe in 2014. Power outage houston report Coal use has subsided slightly, replaced mainly by imported oil and an increase in nuclear power generation. 3 gas laws South Africa started generating nuclear electricity in 1984. 76 gas station hours There has also been interest in renewable energy sources. K gas oroville Their use has grown swiftly, but from such a small base that their total contribution was less than half of 1% in 2014.

According to BP, coal supplies 70.6%, oil supplies 23%, natural gas and nuclear energy supply 2.9% each, renewables supply 0.5%, and hydroelectric power supplies 0.2% of South Africa’s primary energy mix. Gas efficient suv 2010 Coal, oil, natural gas and shale gas reserves

The Oil and Gas Journal, in its ‘Worldwide Report’, places South Africa’s oil reserves at 15 million bbls. Gas city indiana post office This amounts to a mere 0.12% of Africa’s estimated oil reserves, and a vanishingly small percentage of global oil reserves. E gaskell north and south The Oil and Gas Journal estimates that current crude production is 3000 bpd. Electricity video ks1 South Africa’s natural gas reserves were listed as zero, though the country does produce natural gas and is known for its pioneering role as a gas to liquids (GTL) producer. Wireless electricity how it works Coal reserves, in contrast, as estimated by BP, stand at 30.15 billion t, amounting to 3.4% of global reserves, and having a reserves to production ratio of 116 years.

South Africa’s government began searching for oil and gas in the 1940s, under its Geological Survey of South Africa. Zyklon b gas effects The government formed Soekor Pty Ltd in 1965 to oversee exploration and development. Electricity history united states Prospecting in the onshore areas of the Karoo, Zululand and Algoa basins proved disappointing. Electricity 1 7 pdf The government passed its Mining Rights Act in 1967, and it granted offshore concessions to a variety of international companies. Electricity generation definition The first offshore well was drilled in 1969. Gas in back relief Superior Oil discovered natural gas and condensate in the Ga-A1 well in the Pletmos Basin.

In the following years, South Africa’s Apartheid system caused increasing internal resistance, strife and violence. Z gas ensenada The international community ramped up its opposition to Apartheid, beginning with bland diplomatic statements, but gradually adding teeth by instituting arms embargoes and other sanctions. Grade 6 electricity test South Africa largely became a pariah nation, and international oil companies gradually left. Gas dryer vs electric dryer operating cost Many investors divested their holdings in South Africa. Electricity electricity lyrics During those years, Soekor explored alone, and with little success. Electricity generation in india The end of Apartheid came in 1991, though most historians place the effective date at 1994, when the first multi-racial elections were held. 5 gases found in the environment The offshore areas were opened to international companies in a new licensing round held in 1994.

Re-entering the international community stimulated interest in South Africa’s oil and gas industry. Sgas belfast The government established a new state oil company, known as the Petroleum Agency South Africa, in 1999. Static electricity images A new state oil company was formed in 2001 via the merger of Soekor and Mossgas, known as PetroSA. Electricity and magnetism worksheets middle school A new Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act was passed in 2002 and enacted in 2004.

The country’s oil and gas reserves are located primarily offshore in the south portion of the country in the Bredasdorp Basin and off the west coast of the country along the border with Namibia. K electric jobs 2015 The offshore area near Namibia includes the Orange Basin, believed to hold significant oil and natural gas reserves, but these are not yet fully prospected or commercial. Electricity units calculator in pakistan This includes the Kudu gas field, which was discovered long ago, in 1974, by a consortium including Soekor and Chevron. R gasquet Development and a pipeline to the coast are still under consideration.

The advances made in hydraulic fracturing in the US prompted countries around the world to assess shale oil and shale gas potential. Gas utility cost In 2013, the US Energy Information Agency (EIA) published a report on shale resources, and South Africa was noted as possessing the eighth largest technically recoverable shale gas resource in the world. Q gastrobar leblon The EIA originally estimated the reserves to be 485 trillion ft 3, but later revised the estimate down to 390 trillion ft 3 to reflect a downsizing of the prospective areas. Gas stoichiometry practice sheet The shale gas resources are located in the Karoo Basin in three formations known as Whitehill (211 trillion ft3), Prince Albert (96 trillion ft 3) and Collingham (82 trillion ft 3).

The public had many environmental concerns over the potential development of the shale gas resource, largely over the heavy demands that hydraulic fracturing places on water resources. U save gas station grants pass The South African government responded by placing a moratorium on shale gas exploration until the impacts could be considered. Gas x ultra strength during pregnancy A government funded study later recommended that the moratorium be lifted, and this was carried out in September 2012. Gas x directions In October 2013, the government issued new technical regulations governing oil and gas exploration, particularly shale gas exploration and hydraulic fracturing. Electricity videos for 4th grade A year later, the Petroleum Agency of South Africa (PASA) announced that it would begin processing the existing applications for exploring the Karoo Basin, though it would not seek or accept additional applications. Electricity prices by country This timing corresponded with the Saudi Arabian decision to stop supporting crude oil prices, and global energy prices have plummeted since then. Gas after eating eggs Although South Africa has undertaken energy projects that, at the time, seemed to be uneconomic, it would be surprising in today’s market to see large scale shale gas hydraulic fracturing developments go forward. Gas station in spanish Another period of high energy prices, however, could spur renewed interest, given the size of the reserve base and South Africa’s expertise in Fischer-Tropsch processes.

Written by Nancy Yamaguchi, Contributing Editor. Electricity font This is an abridged article taken from the June 2016 issue of Hydrocarbon Engineering. K electric bill Subscribers can view the issue online now by logging in.

Read the article online at: https://www.energyglobal.com/downstream/special-reports/03062016/south-africas-energy-diversification-part-one-3438/