Stability of itraconazole in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid request pdf grade 9 electricity unit test answers


The purpose of this research was to evaluate the stability of 12 oral liquid formulations frequently compounded in hospital and community settings formulated in a specific vehicle: SyrSpend® SF. The stability of melatonin, glycopyrrolate, ciclosporin, chloral hydrate, flecainide acetate, tiagabine HCl, labetalol HCl, ciprofloxacin HCl, spironolactone/hydrochlorothiazide, hydrocortisone, itraconazole and celecoxib in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) was investigated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days and stored at both controlled room temperature and refrigerated. Itraconazole samples were also investigated at 15 and 45 days. No change in odor, color or appearance was observed in the formulations during the test period. Based on the results, a beyond-use date of 30 days can be assigned to tiagabine HCl 1.0 mg/ml in SyrSpend SF when stored at controlled room temperature, and 90 days under refrigeration, improving stability data previously published using other vehicles. A beyond-use date of 60 days can be assigned to chloral hydrate 100.0 mg/ml. In this case, stability is not enhanced by refrigeration. With the rest of the formulations, less than 10% API loss occurred over 90 days at either controlled room save electricity images temperature or under refrigeration. Including for example itraconazole 20.0 mg/ml, thus providing extended stability compared to simple syrup and other oral liquid vehicles. The findings of this study show that SyrSpend SF is an appropriate suspending vehicle to be used for personalized formulations of the APIs studied here.

Ten healthy volunteers were fed breakfast and were then randomly assigned to receive either 400 mg of itraconazole gas vs electric water heater savings 40-mg/mL oral suspension or four 100-mg itraconazole capsules with 240 mL of water. They were not allowed to rest in a supine position for six hours, eat for four hours, or take any beverages for two hours post-dose. Blood samples were taken immediately after the subjects had eaten and at intervals up to 72 hours post-dose. Serum was separated and stored at -70 degrees C. Serum itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. After 14 days, each subject was given the dosage form that he or she did not previously receive, and testing was repeated. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum concentration (tmax) were determined, and the area under the serum concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 72 hours (AUC0-72) was estimated.

The suspension:capsule ratios of least-squares means for Cmax, tmax, and AUC0-72 for itraconazole were 0.15 (90% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.21), 0.95 (90% CI, 0.75-1.20), and 0.12 (9% CI, 0.06-0.23), respectively. The results for hydroxyitraconazole were similar: 0.19 (0.13-0.28), 0.95 (0.81-1.12), and 0.13 (0.07-0.23), respectively.

In the literature, solubility values of itraconazole complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were found which were still much too low to obtain the target concentration of 1 g itraconazole/100 ml, the concentration of the marketed itraconazole formulation 3 gases that cause global warming Sporanox (Janssen Pharmaceutica). Therefore, we compared two preparation methods: the classical and the dissolving method to investigate if the method of preparation can have an influence on the solubility of itraconazole complexed with cyclodextrin (CD). With the classical method, the active compound and the CDs are jointly dissolved with a co-solvent, propylene glycol, in water. With the dissolving method, the active compound is first dissolved separately in a solvent in which it dissolves well, while the CDs are dissolved in water, before mixing. Three different CDs were used and compared for their complexing capacity with itraconazole. The complex formation of itraconazole with HP-beta-CD, sulfobutylether-7-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-7-beta-CD) and maltosyl-beta-cyclodextrin (malt-beta-CD) was investigated at pH 2, in the presence of 10% propylene glycol for an oral solution. These three CDs were chosen as they can also serve in formulations for parenteral use. The method of preparation had an important influence on the complex formation. With the dissolving method, a much higher solubility of itraconazole was obtained using the same CD concentration than with the classical method. Inclusion capacity obtained with the dissolving method was comparable for HP-beta-CD and SBE-7-beta-CD: 1 g itraconazole/100 ml of 25% HP-beta-CD or of 30% SBE-7-beta-CD. In 100 ml of 40% malt-beta-CD only about 500 mg of itraconazole could be dissolved. With electricity receiver definition the classical method only around 160 mg itraconazole could be dissolved with 100 ml 40 % HP-beta-CD or SBE-7-beta-CD. Due to the fast preparation, once the CD amount is known by pretests, the dissolving method shows also an advantage for industrial production.

This chapter describes itraconazole, its nomenclature, formula, physical characteristics, methods of chemical synthesis and analysis, stability, pharmacokinetics, absorption, metabolism, food and drug interaction, and applications. Itraconazle is an antifungal given by mouth for the treatment of aropharyngeal and vulvogaginal candidiasis, for pityriasis versicolor, for dermatophytosis unresponsive to topical treatment, for mychomycosis, and for systemic infections k electric jobs 2015, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, chromoblastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and sparotrichosis. It is also given for the prophylaxis of fungal infections in immuno-compromised patients. Itraconazole is slowly but well absorbed after oral administration with peak concentrations reached in approximately 4 h. Absorption is enhanced in the presence of food and in acidic intragasic environment. Itraconazole is metabolized, mainly via oxidative pathways, to inactive metabolites that are excreted via bile and urine.

The pharmacist, both in community and hospital pharmacy practice, is often challenged with the preparation of a liquid dosage form not available commercially for paediatric patients, those adults unable to swallow tablets or capsules and patients who must receive medications via nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes. Recognising the lack of information available to healthcare professionals, a general discussion of the various parameters that may be modified in preparing these dosage forms and a tabulated summary of the dosage forms presented in the literature is described, which, although not exhaustive, will provide information on the formulation and stability of the most commonly prepared extemporaneous liquid dosage forms. An extensive survey of the literature and investigation of 83 liquid dosage forms revealed that stability considerations were of concern for only 7.2% of these liquid dosage forms, extemporaneously prepared from the following commercially available products: captopril, hydralazine hydrochloride, isoniazid, levothyroxine sodium, phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride and tetracycline hydrochloride. Inclusion of the antioxidant, sodium ascorbate in the liquid dosage form for captopril resulted in improved stability at 4 degrees C. Hydralazine hydrochloride, isoniazid and phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride were adversely affected due to interactions with excipients in the formulation, while the effect of the preservative in lowering the pH in a levothyroxine sodium mixture resulted in decreased stability. Interestingly, the instability in these formulations is primarily due to interactions between the drug substance and the excipients rather than degradation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient by standard routes such as oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis or thermolysis. This low percentage however illustrates the low risk associated with these dosage forms investigated. It may be concluded that when considering the safety and efficacy of liquid dosage forms prepared extemporaneously, it is thus physics c electricity and magnetism important to consider not only the stability of the drug substance but the entire formulation.