Steve rosen ben gurion university of the negev – academia.edu gas tax

##########

The site of Har Qeren 15 is a small tabular scraper quarry and campsite attributable to the Timni… more The site of Har Qeren 15 is a small tabular scraper quarry and campsite attributable to the Timnian culture complex, 6th-3rd millennium Cal BCE, perhaps in the earlier part of the span. Analyses of the lithic materials and their spatial distribution offer a picture of non-intensive production reflecting the production of tabular scrapers and ad hoc tools, perhaps linked to the seasonal round of local pastoral groups. electricity transmission efficiency Combined with other sites from the region, this picture of extensive, almost opportunistic production, contrasts with some of the models of intensive production of tabular scrapers based on sites in Jordan. This suggests either that several modes of manufacture operated during this long period, that the large sites of Jordan represent long, extended periods of exploitation rather than some intensive and specialized system of production, or chronological shifts in the intensity of production.

The site of Har Qeren 15 is a small tabular scraper quarry and campsite attributable to the Timni… more The site of Har Qeren 15 is a small tabular scraper quarry and campsite attributable to the Timnian culture complex, 6th-3rd millennium Cal BCE, perhaps in the earlier part of the span. Analyses of the lithic materials and their spatial distribution offer a picture of non-intensive production reflecting the production of tabular scrapers and ad hoc tools, perhaps linked to the seasonal round of local pastoral groups. Combined with other sites from the region, this picture of extensive, almost opportunistic production, contrasts with some of the models of intensive production of tabular scrapers based on sites in Jordan. This suggests either that several modes of manufacture operated during this long period, that the large sites of Jordan represent long, extended periods of exploitation rather than some intensive and specialized system of production, or chronological shifts in the intensity of production.

Technological analyses of the lithic assemblage recovered from the excavations at Qubur el-Walayd… more Technological analyses of the lithic assemblage recovered from the excavations at Qubur el-Walaydah offer new insights into the nature of the specialized production system of sickle blades during the Late Bronze-Iron Age, and provide new data sets concerning the decline of chipped-stone technologies. Although the knapping technology used for the production of flint sickle segments was relatively simple, the spatial distribution of this system, the hafting procedures, and other technological considerations suggest that the specialists were no longer solely flint knappers, but had become sickle artisans. They produced the complete sickles that the farmers, who in turn lost their role in the manufacturing process, used. This specialized system can be characterized as a kind of vertical production integration. The organization of the production of flint sickles, moreover, may offer insights on the last stage of the stone-metal replacement process. If the intrinsic properties of iron and its availability must have played an important role, the flint-iron substitution might be facilitated by the fact that the production system was already characterized by a form of specialization where the users of these objects were no longer the producers. electricity projects for grade 7 In this regard, the simultaneous fall of ad hoc flint tools represent another facet of the same phenomenon. If within the lithic production system the manufacture of sickles and ad hoc tools represent two distinct subsystems , the large-scale adoption of iron implements suggests the emergence of a single specialized system producing different types of cutting tools, then used for different tasks. Thus, the end of chipped stone tools is related not only to the efficiency of iron implements, but also to a structural change in the relationship between tool consumers and producers.

Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern L… more Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant. However, their function is often assumed or unknown. Thirteen circular pebble installations were found scattered throughout a residential neighbourhood dating to the Early Bronze Age III at Tell es-Safi/Gath. Five such installations were recently studied by implementing an integrated micro-archaeological approach by which all micro-and macro-artefacts were analysed using various analytical techniques. Based on the analysis of ash-micro remains identified in the sediments, associated plant remains, flint and pottery, we suggest that these installations were used for food-processing, cooking and/or other domestic low-heat tasks. gas and supply acworth ga The installations first appear at Tell es-Safi/Gath during the Early Bronze Age III, and seem to disappear during later periods. electricity clipart The functional roles of these installations are discussed in comparison to finds from other Early Bronze Age sites, and of other food preparation traditions known from other periods and cultures.

Technological analyses of the lithic assemblage recovered from the excavations at Qubur el-Walayd… more Technological analyses of the lithic assemblage recovered from the excavations at Qubur el-Walaydah offer new insights into the nature of the specialized production system of sickle blades during the Late Bronze-Iron Age, and provide new data sets concerning the decline of chipped-stone technologies. Although the knapping technology used for the production of flint sickle segments was relatively simple, the spatial distribution of this system, the hafting procedures, and other technological considerations suggest that the specialists were no longer solely flint knappers, but had become sickle artisans. They produced the complete sickles that the farmers, who in turn lost their role in the manufacturing process, used. This specialized system can be characterized as a kind of vertical production integration. The organization of the production of flint sickles, moreover, may offer insights on the last stage of the stone-metal replacement process. If the intrinsic properties of iron and its availability must have played an important role, the flint-iron substitution might be facilitated by the fact that the production system was already characterized by a form of specialization where the users of these objects were no longer the producers. In this regard, the simultaneous fall of ad hoc flint tools represent another facet of the same phenomenon. If within the lithic production system the manufacture of sickles and ad hoc tools represent two distinct subsystems , the large-scale adoption of iron implements suggests the emergence of a single specialized system producing different types of cutting tools, then used for different tasks. Thus, the end of chipped stone tools is related not only to the efficiency of iron implements, but also to a structural change in the relationship between tool consumers and producers.

Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern L… more Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant. However, their function is often assumed or unknown. gasoline p Thirteen circular pebble installations were found scattered throughout a residential neighbourhood dating to the Early Bronze Age III at Tell es-Safi/Gath. Five such installations were recently studied by implementing an integrated micro-archaeological approach by which all micro-and macro-artefacts were analysed using various analytical techniques. Based on the analysis of ash-micro remains identified in the sediments, associated plant remains, flint and pottery, we suggest that these installations were used for food-processing, cooking and/or other domestic low-heat tasks. The installations first appear at Tell es-Safi/Gath during the Early Bronze Age III, and seem to disappear during later periods. The functional roles of these installations are discussed in comparison to finds from other Early Bronze Age sites, and of other food preparation traditions known from other periods and cultures.

Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern L… more Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant. However, their function is often assumed or unknown. gas x dosage pregnancy Thirteen circular pebble installations were found scattered throughout a residential neighbourhood dating to the Early Bronze Age III at Tell es-Safi/Gath. Five such installations were recently studied by implementing an integrated micro-archaeological approach by which all micro-and macro-artefacts were analysed using various analytical techniques. Based on the analysis of ash-micro remains identified in the sediments, associated plant remains, flint and pottery, we suggest that these installations were used for food-processing, cooking and/or other domestic low-heat tasks. The installations first appear at Tell es-Safi/Gath during the Early Bronze Age III, and seem to disappear during later periods. The functional roles of these installations are discussed in comparison to finds from other Early Bronze Age sites, and of other food preparation traditions known from other periods and cultures.

Analysis of the ad hoc component of lithic assemblages from three Bronze Age sites in Israel show… more Analysis of the ad hoc component of lithic assemblages from three Bronze Age sites in Israel shows common technological patterns without significant chronological and geographical differences. Like more formal components of lithic industries, expedient and opportunistic production of tools can be characterized using technological criteria and parameters which discern recurrent patterns in lithic manufacture. Irregular flakes, variable in shape, size, and raw material, and with only minimal retouch, constitute coherent assemblages, resulting from basic knapping strategies based on a few rules and simple flaking schemes. static electricity zap Specifically, the absence of standardized morphologies should not be misconstrued as random production. A general uniformity and stability in the ad hoc production system through the Early, Middle, and Late Bronze Ages indicates the maintenance of common technical behaviors that did not change in parallel to other technological transformations, either within the flint system or outside it, and nor in response to significant socio-political changes. This diachronic continuity, attested through the early Iron Age, reflects a stable technological substrate. Low technical investment and elementary production/consumption systems represent domestic contexts, widespread within the society, which for millennia played a leading role the daily life of ancient people.

Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern L… more Pebble stone installations are commonly found at various Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant. However, their function is often assumed or unknown. gas 1940 hopper Thirteen circular pebble installations were found scattered throughout a residential neighbourhood dating to the Early Bronze Age III at Tell es-Safi/Gath. Five such installations were recently studied by implementing an integrated micro-archaeological approach by which all micro-and macro-artefacts were analysed using various analytical techniques. Based on the analysis of ash-micro remains identified in the sediments, associated plant remains, flint and pottery, we suggest that these installations were used for food-processing, cooking and/or other domestic low-heat tasks. The installations first appear at Tell es-Safi/Gath during the Early Bronze Age III, and seem to disappear during later periods. The functional roles of these installations are discussed in comparison to finds from other Early Bronze Age sites, and of other food preparation traditions known from other periods and cultures.