Study bad fracking techniques let methane flow into drinking water – the washington post electricity magnetism and electromagnetic theory pdf


That’s both good news — and bad news — for the shale gas business. On the one hand, the study suggests the problem can be fixed and gas 37 weeks pregnant that methane contamination of water wells isn’t an inherent part of the fracking process. Contamination can be minimized with proper drilling techniques, including higher standards for cement well linings and steel casings. This is relatively good news because it means that most of the issues we have identified can potentially be avoided by future improvements in well integrity, said Thomas Darrah, the study leader and assistant professor of earth sciences at Ohio State.

On the other hand, with thousands of wells being drilled every year, even a very small rate of failure would mean the steady contamination of a significant number electricity word search of water wells and aquifers. So far this year, the state of Pennsylvania — home to the prolific Marcellus shale — has issued drilling permits for more than two thousand wells npower electricity meter reading. If just one percent of those had a cement or casing failure, that would mean the contamination of 20 drinking water sources in the state every nine and a half months.

Indeed, one area the new study examines is Parker County, Texas, the site of a high-profile lawsuit by an individual, Steve Lipsky, who alleged that fracking wells had spoiled his drinking water. He was also shown in a movie about fracking with flames coming out of his garden hose. The electricity in india first time company that drilled that well denied any wrongdoing. The Texas Railroad Commission, which regulates oil and gas drilling, has blamed natural seeps for the contamination of local drinking water.

There is no question that in many instances elevated levels of natural gas are naturally occurring, but in a subset of cases electricity was invented, there is also clear evidence that there were human causes for the contamination, said Darrah. However our data suggests that where contamination occurs, it was caused by poor casing and cementing in the wells, Darrah said.

In the hydraulic fracturing process, water and small amounts of chemicals are pumped underground to break up shale at a depth far below the water aquifers. That unlocks natural gas, which flows back up the well. The long vertical pipes that carry the gas upward are encircled in cement to seal the sides of the well and prevent the natural gas from leaking. The study suggests that natural gas that has kushal gas agencies belgaum leaked into electricity outage compensation aquifers is the result of failures in the cement used in the well.

The study identified seven clusters of contaminated drinking-water wells in Pennsylvania and one cluster in Texas. Then it looked at 113 drinking water wells near fracking sites in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus shale and 20 wells in the Barnett shale in Texas. Their findings were published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The study cast doubt on the Texas Railroad Commission report, which said that in Parker County, TX the landowners complaining of water contamination had drilled too deep and that methane had migrated from the relatively shallow Strawn shale formation. Darrah said that noble gases are particularly good for tracking the migration of gas and gaston y la agrupacion santa fe that they study did not find any evidence of migration from the Strawn formation.

Well integrity failures are exceedingly rare, a fraction of one percent, said Katie Brown, a spokesman for Energy in Depth, a public affairs Web site launched by the Independent Petroleum Association of America. She cited statistics, however, that pre-dated the fracking boom. She also pointed to a study by the U.S. Geological Survey that said better information is needed about baseline conditions of water power outage houston txu wells and aquifers.