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Autoimmune myositic myopathy. Unlike infectious myopathies, autoimmune myopathies are usually chronic, subtle, and relatively rare. tortugas ninjas The 3 most common autoimmune myopathies—polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis—have a combined prevalence of approximately 10:100,000. 6 Although these types of myopathies are uncommon, FPs will likely be the first to evaluate a patient with one of them.

Patients with an autoimmune myopathy typically complain of weakness and mild to moderate muscle pain, although pain may be absent. gas news Compared to infectious myopathies, autoimmune myopathies usually exhibit a more indolent course. Patients with advanced disease may report fever, weight loss, shortness of breath from cardiomyopathy, heartburn from a weakened lower esophageal sphincter, and/or a rash. 5

A patient with mild to moderate electrolyte problems may complain of muscle fatigue, weakness, or pain. gas gas Physical examination may reveal symmetric, proximal muscle weakness. Atrophy is typically not seen until late in the disease. power outage houston report Skin exam usually is normal in patients with inclusion body myositis and polymyositis. The typical rash of dermatomyositis is a heliotrope (blue-purple) discoloration on the upper eyelids and a raised, violaceous, scaly eruption on the knuckles (Gottron’s papules).

Laboratory tests that can be helpful include CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aldolase, and LFTs (reflecting muscle injury, not liver involvement). victaulic t gasket For polymyositis and dermatomyositis, CK is the most sensitive lab test and often exhibits the highest elevation above normal. 6 Conversely, CK is often normal or only mildly elevated in inclusion body myositis. Up to 80% of patients with autoimmune myopathy will have antinuclear antibodies. 3,5 ESR and CRP levels are also often elevated.

Electrolyte disorders. Muscle-related symptoms are unlikely to be the chief complaint of patients with severe electrolyte imbalance. find a gas station close to me However, a patient with mild to moderate electrolyte problems may develop muscle fatigue, weakness, or pain. TABLE 3 reviews other signs and symptoms of electrolyte abnormalities that may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis in a patient with muscle complaints.

Ordering a complete metabolic panel (CMP), CK, and urinalysis (UA) can help rule out electrolyte disorders. If electrolyte disorders are detected, an electrocardiogram is useful to evaluate for cardiac dysfunction. Once an electrolyte disorder is identified, investigate its underlying cause. Correcting the electrolyte disorder should help improve symptoms of myopathy.

The presentation of endocrine myopathy may be subtle. all 4 gas giants names Patients with hypothyroidism may experience muscle pain or weakness, fatigue, cold sensitivity, constipation, and dry skin. 20 Muscle-related symptoms may be the only sign of endocrine myopathy in a patient who would otherwise be considered to have subclinical hypothyroidism. 8,18 Hyperthyroidism can present with weight loss, heat intolerance, frequent bowel movements, tachycardia, and muscle weakness. 21

Because metabolic myopathy can occur at any age, a thorough history and physical is crucial for diagnosis. Proximal weakness in metabolic myopathy is often associated with exercise intolerance, stressful illness, or fasting. Patients often present with dynamic abnormalities such as fatigue, muscle cramping, and even rhabdomyolysis during exertion. 7

When evaluating patients you suspect may have metabolic myopathy, a physical exam may reveal muscle contractures, muscle swelling, or proximal muscle weakness. Patients with certain types of fatty acid oxidation disorders or mitochondrial disorders may also exhibit cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, ataxia, hearing loss, or other systemic manifestations. 7