Syria – camopedia gas 87 89 91


The name and culture of Syria has ancient origins, referring to a region once known as the Levant. Absorbed into the Ottoman Empire during the 16th Century, the modern state of Syria was created as part of the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, originally as a territory under French mandate. Between 1925 and 1927 a series of battles ensued between French troops and Syrian dissidents supporting independence. electricity youtube Syria remained under French control until 1941, when it again proclaimed its independence. In 1946, the Syrian Republic was established and recognized.

The country aligned itself with other Arab nations during the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, and its subsequent defeat led to a period of instability lasting throughout the 1950s. Historically aligned with the USSR and Egypt, Syria merged with the latter in 1958 forming the United Arab Republic (1958-1961). However, a military seizure of power in September of 1961 dissolved the union and led to the establishment of the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), a name that the nation retains today.

Syria fought Israel again during the Six Day War (1967), during which the Golan Heights were lost. The territory was regained briefly during the Yom Kippur War (1973), but retaken by Israel which has retained possession ever since. gas laws worksheet with answers Syria was heavily involved during the Lebanese Civil War, sending troops into Lebanon itself to support insurgent forces (particularly the Amal Movement) and plausibly to seek control over the entire territory. Syrian military forces remained in Lebanon long after the war ended, but were forced to withdraw finally in 2005 under international pressure.

The Syrian government and Ministry of Defence have long been supportive of Palestinian efforts to establish sovereign territory within the present state of Israel. Various factions of the PLO have received direct military aid from Syria, and indeed Syrian manufactured military equipment (including Syrian-made camouflage uniforms) have frequently been documented among Palestinian insurgent forces. Syrians have also harbored mixed views about neighboring Lebanon, once considered a part of the Arab Kingdom of Syria. Many Syrians simply hope for a stable economy and safe borders with their neighbor, but a strong percentage have always worked towards establishing a pro-Syrian government or even outright unification, with complete Syrian control. Certain paramilitary groups operating with Lebanese territory have historically been trained and funded completely by Syrian government sources. A list of groups operating outside Syria but with political and military allegiance to the Syrian government include:

• Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) – founded in 1964 and initially envisioned as the military wing of the PLO, this well-supplied paramilitary unit at one time had as many as 12,000 uniformed fighters organized in three Brigades. In practice, the PLA never actually deployed in support of the PLO, but instead functioned as an auxiliary wing, first of the Egyptian Army, and later of the Syrian Army until 1993.

Sparked by political unrest and regime change in other parts of Western Asia and North Africa (collectively referred to as the "Arab Spring" Movement), Syrian dissidents began demonstrating against President Bashar al-Assad and his Ba’ath party, which has maintained strict one-party control over the nation for nearly fifty years, in March 2011. electricity flow chart Heavy handed and violently oppressive measures against the protesters, and lack of international involvement, eventually spawned a full-scale civil war, which continues to rage across the nation. gas hydrates india By late 2013, the list of paramilitary and militia groups included the following:

• Having a lengthy association with France, it should be no surprise that Syria has been heavily influenced by French military camouflage, particularly the tenue du leopard or lizard designs. The earliest Syrian made copies seem to retain the russet or orange stripes of the original French designs, although in some cases the stripes are vertically aligned rather than horizontally.

• The dapple or spot pattern(s) seen in these photographs can be dated to the early 1970s. Due to the quality of the photographs, it is difficult to discern if these are the same design, or two slightly different patterns. Documentation remains scant, leading us to conclude the use may have been restricted to the Republican Guard or one of the Defense Companies of this period.

• Another early pattern derivative of the French lizard is a vertical stripe pattern with dark colors. Sometimes referred to as "green lizard," the design incorporates vertical stripes of brown and dark green on a pale green background. The pattern was reputedly worn by some Syrian Commando and Paratroop units, although it is most commonly associated with units of the PLO. Over the years the pattern earned an association among collectors with a supposed Syrian unit called the "Saika Division;" however, such a Division is undocumented, and in fact the term probably refers to As-Sa’iqa (Al-Sa’iqa), a militant faction of the PLO that was supported by Syria until the early 1990s. This pattern strongly resembles one later adopted by Egypt for certain military police and Presidential Guard units.

• The camouflage pattern probably most commonly associated with the Syrian Armed Forces is another lizard variant design having reddish stripes. Introduced in the mid-1970s, the pattern continued to be worn by Syrian, Lebanese and some PLO elements well into the 1990s, although it seems to have fallen into disuse today. gas leak los angeles california Inconsistencies in production standards have led to quite a number of variations being produced, although in most cases the primary difference is a slight variation in the original colors printed, rather than an alteration of the drawings themselves. Both vertical and horizontal orientations have been documented, although the latter seem to be more prevalent. The "red lizard" patterns seem to be primarily associated with airborne and commando units, and not with conventional forces.

• Beginning in the 1980s, Syrian military forces began deploying with a locally-made copy of the US m1948 ERDL camouflage pattern. There is likely to be some connection to Iraq and/or Jordan, as both countries were using a similar camouflage design at this time. The "Syrian leaf" pattern employs a different color scheme, and, as with most locally-made uniforms, is printed on a heavier weight cotton fabric.

As with the previous civil war of liberation in Libya (February to October 2011), the numerous factions and sources of military support have made it challenging to track consistent use of camouflage combat uniforms amongst the forces opposing the Syrian government. It has been particularly difficult to determine which camouflage patterns and uniforms have been obtained in quantity (from disparate sources), and which have simply appeared among the combatants singly or in scattered numbers. f gas certification logo In addition to standard Syrian Army camouflage uniforms and equipment (which have appeared in abundance), insurgent forces have also made significant use of donated uniforms from supporting nations like Turkey and Jordan. Several types of vertical lizard camouflage have been documented, but in such small numbers it has yet to be determined the sources. The patterns illustrated below have appeared in significant enough numbers to verify their existence in quantity among the liberation movements.

• Asian-made copies of the USMC MARPAT camouflage design have been documented in use by some insurgents, most notably among members of a militia calling itself the Liwa’a al-Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba. Members of the same militia have also been photographed wearing various Iranian woodland camouflage designs, such as those directly above this entry.