Ta-nehisi coates on race, class, and reparations – the atlantic

Unfortunately, palliatives are common these days among many of us on the left. Electricity bill cost per month In a recent piece, I asserted that western Europe demonstrated that democratic-socialist policy, alone, could not sufficiently address the problem of white supremacy. Gaston y astrid lima Johnson strongly disagreed with this:

Coates’s sweeping mischaracterization diminishes the actual impact that social-democratic and socialist governments have historically had in improving the labor conditions and daily lives of working people, in Europe, the United States, and for a time, across parts of the Third World.

There is not a single word in this response relating to race and racism in Western Europe or anything remotely closely to it. Gas nozzle keeps stopping Instead, Johnson proposes to bait with race, and then switch to class. Gas vs electric oven cost He swaps “labor conditions and daily lives of working people” in for “victims of white supremacy” and prays that the reader does not notice. When was gas 99 cents in california Indeed, one might just as easily note that the advance of indoor plumbing, germ theory, and electricity have improved “the labor conditions and daily lives of working people,” and this would be no closer to actual engagement.

This pattern—strident rhetoric divorced from knowable fact—marks Johnson’s argument. Gas leak los angeles california Reparations, he tells us, do not emerge from the “felt needs of the majority of blacks,” a claim that is hard to square with the fact that a majority of blacks support reparations. Gas stoichiometry worksheet answers Instead, he argues, the claim for reparations emerges from a cabal of “anti-racist liberals” and “black elites” seeking to make a “territorial-identitarian claim for power.” In fact, the reparations movement runs the gamut from the victims of Jon Burge, to those targeted by North Carolina’s eugenics campaign, to those targeted by the same campaign in Virginia, to those targeted by “Massive Resistance” in the same state, to the descendants of those devastated by the Tulsa pogrom. Electricity magnetism and light Are the black people of Tulsa who suffered aerial bombing at the hands of their own government“black elites” in pursuit of “territorial-identitarian claim?” Or are they something far simpler—people who were robbed and believe they deserve to be compensated?

Johnson denigrates recompense by asserting that the demands for reparations have not “yielded one tangible improvement in the lives of the majority of African Americans.” This is also true of single-payer health care, calls to break up big banks, free public universities, and any other leftist policy that has yet to come to pass. E payment electricity bill up For a program to have effect, it has to actually be put in effect. Gasbuddy near me Why would reparations be any different?

But ultimately, Johnson doesn’t reject reparations because he doesn’t think they would work, but because he doesn’t believe specific black injury through racism actually exists. Gas efficient suv 2013 He favors a “more Marxist class-oriented analysis” over the notion of treating “black poverty as fundamentally distinct from white poverty.” Johnson declines to actually investigate this position and furnish evidence—even though such evidence is not really hard to find. Electricity history facts ( The Washington Post)

Courtesy of Emily Badger, this is a chart of concentrated poverty in America — that is to say families which are both individually poor and live in poor neighborhoods. Gastroparesis Whereas individual poverty deprives one of the ability to furnish basic needs, concentrated poverty extends out from the wallet out to the surrounding institutions— the schools, the street, the community center, the policing. Electricity demand If individual poverty in America is hunger, neighborhood poverty is a famine. Gas vs electric water heater cost per year As the chart demonstrates, the black poor are considerably more subject to famine than the white poor. Tgask Indeed, so broad is this particular famine that its reach extends out to environs that most would consider well-nourished.

As the chart above demonstrates, neighborhood poverty threatens both black poor and nonpoor families to such an extent that poor white families are less likely to live in poor neighborhoods than nonpoor black families. T gas terengganu This is not an original finding. Electricity 220v The sociologist Robert Sampson finds that:

….racial differences in neighborhood exposure to poverty are so strong that even high-income blacks are exposed to greater neighborhood poverty than low-income whites. Gas quality by brand For example, nonpoor blacks in Chicago live in neighborhoods that are nearly 30 percent in poverty—traditionally the definition of “concentrated poverty” areas—whereas poor whites lives in neighborhoods with 15 percent poverty, about the national average.*

In its pervasiveness, concentration, and reach across class lines, black poverty proves itself to be “fundamentally distinct” from white poverty. Electricity questions for class 10 It would be much more convenient for everyone on the left if this were not true—that is to say if neighborhood poverty, if systemic poverty, menaced all communities equally. Electricity generation efficiency In such a world, one would only need to craft universalist solutions for universal problems.

This chart by sociologist Patrick Sharkey quantifies the degree to which neighborhood poverty afflicts black and white families. O gascon Sociologists like Sharkey typically define a neighborhood with a poverty rate greater than 20 percent as “high poverty.” T he majority of black people in this country (66 percent) live in high-poverty neighborhoods. Gas and supply acworth ga The vast majority of whites (94 percent) do not. Electricity usage in the us The effects of this should concern anyone who believes in a universalist solution to a particular affliction. Electricity and magnetism worksheets 5th grade According to Sharkey:

Neighborhood poverty alone, accounts for a greater portion of the black-white downward mobility gap than the effects of parental education, occupation, labor force participation, and a range of other family characteristics combined.

No student of the history of American housing policy will be shocked by this. C gastritis Concentrated poverty is the clear, and to some extent intentional, result of the segregationist housing policy that dominated America through much of the 20th century.

In the chart above, Sampson plotted the the incarceration rate in Chicago from the onset imprisonment boom to its height. Gas south As Sampson notes, the incarceration rate in the most afflicted black neighborhood is 40 times worse than the incarceration rate in the most afflicted white neighborhood. Electric zap sound effect free But more tellingly for our purposes, incarceration rates for white neighborhoods bunch at the lower end, while incarceration rates for black neighborhoods bunch at the higher end. Gas turbine There is no gradation, nor overlap between the two. Hp gas kushaiguda phone number It is almost as if, from the perspective of mass incarceration, black and white people—regardless of neighborhood—inhabit two “fundamentally distinct”worlds.

Bombast, too. Electricity song lyrics In Johnson’s rendition, black writers who trouble his particular “solidarity” are not sincerely disagreeing with his ideas, they are assuaging “white guilt” and doing the dirty work of interpreting black people for “white publics.” Johnson lobs this charge as though he is not himself interpreting for white publics, as though he were holding forth from the offices of The Amsterdam News. Electricity was invented And then he lobs a good deal more:

…Coates’s latest attack on Sanders, and willingness to join the chorus of red-baiters, has convinced me that his particular brand of antiracism does more political harm than good, further mystifying the actual forces at play and the real battle lines that divide our world.

This not the language of debate. Electricity nightcore It is the vocabulary of compliance. Electricity kwh cost uk ​In this way, a strong and important disagreement on the left becomes something darker. Electricity transmission vs distribution Critiquing the policies of a presidential candidate constitutes an “attack.” A call for intersectional radicalism is “red-baiting.” And the argument for reparations does “more political harm than good.”

The feeling is not mutual. Orlando electricity providers I think Johnson’s ideas originate not in some diabolical plot, but in an honest and deeply held concern for the plundered peoples of the world. Electricity jewels Whatever their origin, there is much in Johnson’s response worthy of study, and much more which all who hope for struggle across the manufactured line of race might learn from. Electricity vs gas heating costs Johnson’s distillation of the Readjuster movement, his emphasis on the value of the postal service and public-sector jobs, and his insistence on telling a broader story of housing and segregation add considerable value to the present conversation. Gas city indiana car show His insistence that airing arguments to the contrary is harmful does not.

It is not even that a solidarity premised on the suppression of debate—a solidarity of ignorance—is wrong in and of itself, though it is. Electricity billy elliot karaoke It is that a solidarity of ignorance blinds one to complicating factors:

Social exclusion and labor exploitation are different problems, but they are never disconnected under capitalism. Gas hydrates wiki And both processes work to the advantage of capital. Gas meter car Segmented labor markets, ethnic rivalry, racism, sexism, xenophobia, and informalization all work against solidarity. K electric company duplicate bill Whether we are talking about antebellum slaves, immigrant strikebreakers, or undocumented migrant workers, it is clear that exclusion is often deployed to advance exploitation on terms that are most favorable to investor class interests.

No. Gas jeans usa Social exclusion works for solidarity, as often as it works against it. Harry mileaf electricity 1 7 pdf Sexism is not merely, or even primarily, a means of conferring benefits to the investor class. E sampark electricity bill payment It is also a means of forging solidarity among “men,” much as xenophobia forges solidarity among “citizens,” and homophobia makes for solidarity among “heterosexuals.” What one is is often as important as what one is not, and so strong is the negative act of defining community that one wonders if all of these definitions—man, heterosexual, white—would evaporate in absence of negative definition.

That question is beyond my purview (for now). Electricity grid uk But what is obvious is that the systemic issues that allowed men as different as Bill Cosby and Daniel Holtzclaw to perpetuate their crimes, the systemic issues which long denied gay people, no matter how wealthy, to marry and protect their families, can not be crudely reduced to the mad plottings of plutocrats. Gas stoichiometry calculator In America, solidarity among laborers is not the only kind of solidarity. Electricity invented in homes In America, it isn’t even the most potent kind.

The history of the very ideas Johnson favors evidences this fact. Electricity production in the us At every step, “universalist” social programs have been hampered by the idea of becoming, and remaining, forever white. Electricity news philippines So it was with the New Deal. Hp gas online registration So it is with Obamacare. Gas and water llc So it would be with President Sanders. Electricity quiz for grade 5 That is not because the white working class labors under mass hypnosis. Hp electricity bill payment online It is because whiteness confers knowable, quantifiable privileges, regardless of class—much like “manhood” confers knowable, quantifiable privileges, regardless of race. Electricity generation in usa White supremacy is neither a trick, nor a device, but one of the most powerful shared interests in American history.