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Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that post-stroke gait rehabilitation combining functional electrical stimulation applied to the ankle muscles during fast treadmill walking (FastFES) improves gait biomechanics and clinical walking function. electricity and magnetism purcell pdf However, there is considerable inter-individual variability in response to FastFES. Although FastFES aims to sculpt ankle muscle coordination, whether changes in ankle muscle activity underlie observed gait improvements is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate three cases illustrating how FastFES modulates ankle muscle recruitment during walking.

Methods: We conducted a preliminary case series study on three individuals (53-70y; 2M; 35-60 months post-stroke; 19-22 lower extremity Fugl-Meyer) who participated in 18 sessions of FastFES (3 sessions/week; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01668602). Clinical walking function (speed, six-minute walk test, and Timed-Up-and-Go test), gait biomechanics (paretic propulsion and ankle angle at initial-contact), and plantarflexor (soleus) / dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior) muscle recruitment were assessed pre- and post-FastFES while walking without stimulation.

Results: Two participants (R1, R2) were categorized as responders based on improvements in clinical walking function. Consistent with heterogeneity of clinical and biomechanical changes commonly observed following gait rehabilitation, how muscle activity was altered with FastFES differed between responders.R1 exhibited improved plantarflexor recruitment during stance accompanied by increased paretic propulsion. R2 exhibited improved dorsiflexor recruitment during swing accompanied by improved paretic ankle angle at initial-contact. In contrast, the third participant (NR1), classified as a non-responder, demonstrated increased ankle muscle activity during inappropriate phases of the gait cycle. Across all participants, there was a positive relationship between increased walking speeds after FastFES and reduced SOL/TA muscle coactivation.

Conclusion: Our preliminary case series study is the first to demonstrate that improvements in ankle plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscle recruitment (muscles targeted by FastFES) accompanied improvements in gait biomechanics and walking function following FastFES in individuals post-stroke. Our results also suggest that inducing more appropriate (i.e., reduced) ankle plantar/dorsi-flexor muscle coactivation may be an important neuromuscular mechanism underlying improvements in gait function after FastFES training, suggesting that pre-treatment ankle muscle status could be used for inclusion into FastFES. The findings of this case-series study, albeit preliminary, provide the rationale and foundations for larger-sample studies using similar methodology.

Methods: An individual with chronic hemiplegia and severe hand impairment was recruited. Electrical stimulation was delivered to different pairs of an electrode grid along the ulnar and median nerves to selectively activate different finger flexor muscles, with an automated electrode switching method. The resultant individual isometric flexion forces and forearm flexor high-density electromyography (HDEMG) were acquired to evaluate the finger activation patterns. A medium and low level of overall activation were chosen to gauge the available finger patterns for both the contralateral and paretic hands. All the flexion forces were then clustered to categorize the different types of grasp patterns.

Results: Both the contralateral and paretic sides demonstrated various force clusters including single and multi-finger activation patterns. gas estimator The contralateral hand showed finger activation patterns mainly centered on median nerve activation of the index, middle, and ring fingers. The paretic hand exhibited fewer total activation patterns, but still showed activation of all four fingers in some combination.

Conclusion: Our results show that electrical stimulation at multiple positions along the proximal nerve bundles can elicit a select variety of finger activation patterns even in a stroke survivor with minimal hand function. This system could be further implemented for better rehabilitative training to help induce functional grasp patterns or to help regain muscle mass.

Following a stroke, a majority of individuals have paresis due to a loss of excitatory input and subsequent complications, such as disuse atrophy ( 1) and altered spinal organization ( 2– 4). This loss of voluntary control of muscle activation often limits activities of daily living. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been widely utilized both in the clinic and in research settings to help restore atrophied muscle and lost functions ( 5– 7). Electrical stimulation has been particularly successful with post-stroke survivors for functional recovery ( 8– 10). electricity video ks1 Research in NMES also aims to restore functional activation of muscles, such as the restoration of hand grasps ( 11).

Traditionally, NMES uses large electrode pads, targeting the distal branches of the nerve, known as the motor point stimulation ( 12). Although stimulation of the motor point is straightforward methodologically, NMES is limited to localized muscle activation, which limits its functional efficacy and also leads to rapid muscle fatigue ( 13). Advances in NMES techniques to alleviate these issues involve various multi-electrode techniques, which can stimulate multiple small regions of the muscle to help distribute the current and potentially activate more muscle fibers ( 14, 15). Crema et al. has also demonstrated flexible activation of multiple fingers using a multi-electrode array across the forearm and hand ( 16). Other approaches to NMES involve stimulation of the nerve bundle prior to branching and innervating a muscle, which has shown to allow for a larger area of muscle activation and potentially reduce long-term fatigue effects ( 17– 19).

Recent developments have demonstrated the capabilities of an alternative non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation method targeting the ulnar and median nerves proximal to the elbow to flexibly activate individual and multiple fingers ( 20, 21). gasket t 1995 In addition, this technique shows the ability to delay the force decline ( 22, 23). A stimulation electrode grid placed along the two nerves allows us to activate different muscles or muscle portions to elicit varied desired movements, but manually switching between different electrode pairs is time-consuming. To shorten this process, an automated electrode pair searching method has been developed and tested on intact control subjects ( 24). This new method can further categorize the total available sets of finger activation patterns across the entire electrode grid, providing valuable information on electrode selection and the force generation capacity of stroke muscles. However, the efficiency of this method has not been tested on stroke survivors. Therefore, this case study recruited a control subject and a stroke survivor with severe weakness of the right arm, and evaluated the available finger activation patterns of the subjects. Our results showed varied activation of multiple fingers from both subjects. Further development of this stimulation technique can provide valuable alternatives to current rehabilitation for the restoration of hand movements.[…]

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This paper investigates the muscle activation of the upper arm for the progress monitoring of post-stroke rehabilitation. la gastritis The performance measure is an indicator to monitor the progress of the rehabilitation exercise. The aim is for the fast recovery from the lost function of the upper limb as a result of the paralyzed patients. The investigation results will be employed in virtual reality (VR) game technology in the stroke rehabilitation exercise. It can solve the problem of the conventional stroke therapy which some prove inefficient and even some fail to regain patients’ upper arm. The rehabilitation task requires the muscle activity measurement and monitoring of the progress that involve both fundamental and functional movements. By consistently do the rehabilitation exercise, patients can slowly develop the motor functions, which enables them to slowly regain the movement of the affected limb. grade 9 electricity test questions In the experiments, five healthy subjects were selected. The experimental results show that deltoid has a significant activation compared with the bicep. In the VR systems, these two muscles will be used to monitor the progress of the rehabilitation. INTRODUCTION

Stroke is one of the main five driving reasons for death and one of the best 10 foundations for hospitalization in Malaysia. World Health Organization (WHO) statistical profile for Malaysia stated that the stroke was at second position for causes of deaths in Malaysia, killing 15.5 thousand people in 2012. Based on study by Burke and Venketasubramanian [1], it was stated that Malaysia was at third position for stroke mortality and at fourth placed among causes of death after 1991. Stroke can cause a long-term disability. electricity deregulation in california The major cause of this disability is due to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), and Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) [2]. The outcomes of these ailments are impact on patient’s personal satisfaction as well as likewise confined their execution of everyday life exercises. Motor deficits following stroke are most obvious in the contralesional (inverse of the injury side of the cerebrum) limbs, and may include muscle shortcoming, fatigue, abnormal muscle tone, and joint and muscle contracture [2-4]. In order to recover from this disability, hospitals and clinics had conducted the rehabilitation proses of training with the goals to heal or improve lost function of human motor due to the stroke disease [5-7].

This research is conducted to select the most activated muscle on human body specifically for upper arm muscle in case of measuring the performance of post stroke patient in rehabilitation. The objective of this research is to investigate the motion features of the functional movement by using electromyography (EMG). The significant muscle for the performance measure of the stroke rehabilitation will be proposed. Not to forget the functional pattern or motion pattern will be design to get the better muscle activation performance.

The organization of the paper is as follows. Introduction is given in the first section of this paper. electricity and circuits class 6 pdf Then, literature review regarding EMG and post stroke rehabilitation will be presented in the following section. Methodology and flow of this work will be explained in detail in the third section. Results of this work can be seen in the fourth section.