## Teaching students with autism to solve mathematical word problems research frontiers gas zeta costa rica

Behavior analysts working in public schools in the 1990s did not hear as much about autism as they do today. They would enter classrooms to work with children who usually were experiencing difficulty with behavior, but also gas kush demonstrated limited academic achievement. The analysts needed to figure out the best approach to educating these children.

Peggy Schaefer Whitby was one of those behavior analysts. She worked with children in the public school system who had significant behavioral challenges. She found that it worked to implement the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis to address the behavioral and communication skills of the children. Over the years, she applied them to more and more children gas oil, most of whom had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

In early elementary school, children with high-functioning autism may be high performers. Once they arrive in middle school, though, they often hit a wall. In middle school, teachers expect more self-direction from students. The course work becomes more applied and abstract, particularly in mathematics. Children with austism often struggle in these modes of learning. “We have an ‘I do, we do, you do’ approach.”

“There gsa 2016 pay scale is a myth that children with autism are savants in mathematics,” Schaefer Whitby said. “Certainly there are people with autism who have savant-type skills, but these kids also struggle with mathematical learning. We have children who can count and memorize math facts, but struggle with application. Problem-solving also involves reading comprehension issues.”

Solve It! uses seven cognitive strategies, combined with metacognitive strategies, that essentially place the learner in the right mindset, or schema, to solve a problem electricity and magnetism online games. The seven cognitive strategies are: read, paraphrase, visualize, hypothesize, estimate, compute and check. Students memorize these steps using the pneumonic R.P.V.H.E.C.C. At each step the student uses metacognitive strategies of self-management, self-checking and self-evaluation.

Soon they solved problems using the new strategies without someone telling them how. After 10 days they consistently solved the problems correctly. In three weeks they applied the strategies to the general education setting. “I could see on their classroom papers where they wrote R.P.V.H.E.C.C. and checked off as they went along,” she said. “We look at how these kids visualize and use schema.”

Students with high-functioning autism tend to read — and see the world — in a very literal and concrete manner. One of the word problems in Schaefer Whitby gas bubble in chest and back’s study described a person baking cookies. In this example, a student with good schema may visualize the cookies ordered on a pan, whereas a person without a good schema may 8 gases draw a picture of Mom baking the cookies.

Children with austism may have poor schema that prevents them from visualizing what they need to solve the problem. This can occur in a simple multiplication problem. A student with good schema represents two times three as two sets of three. A student who does not have good schema may visualize two objects in one set and three in the other.

“If the child does not maintain the strategies gas works park, we look at procedural facilitation,” Schaefer Whitby explained. “I use a video model to teach the kids how to use the strategy and have it in the classroom so a teacher does not have to be there. You can use it as a video model in priming where the students watch it before they solve the problem. You can also use it as a video prompt where the students stop at each step to see how they solve the problem. My next research studies will be looking at that.” “The research has implications for teachers and practitioners.”

“One of the young men that I worked with was brilliant gas density problems,” Schaefer Whitby said. “He loved computers, but he only loved non-proprietary software because he can go in and change the code. So I had a 13-year-old who could do his own programming on non-proprietary software but who could not pass mathematics. What is the future for this child? If he cannot pass mathematics, he can’t get a regular high school diploma. Yet he could be the next Bill Gates.”