The motorship _ scr for a sustainable future

With new regulations aiming to drastically reduce NOx emission levels for diesel engines, the need to control a vessel’s environmental impact has never been more important. Electricity will not generally cause Eric Hyder, strategic account manager at Finning UK and Ireland (Finning), argues that selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is leading the way.

Standards have been launched by a number of industry bodies to reduce harmful levels of NOx – oxides of nitrogren emitted from diesel engines – and particulate matter produced by diesel engines. Gas efficient cars under 5000 Stringent air pollution restrictions were introduced in January 2014 under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 standards, which demanded an 80% reduction in NOx. Electricity storage handbook Currently, all new engines with a power range between 2,000-3,700kW must be compliant. Electricity deregulation choices and challenges By October 2017, however, all new engines with a maximum power of 600kW and above must meet these standards too.

Furthermore, from January 2016 all new ships will have to comply with the International Maritime Organisation’s Tier III standards if they wish to enter North America, with other areas expected to follow suit in the coming years.

Diesel engines are often the only feasible or cost-effective solution for maritime vessels, given the limited availability of clean fuel. Electricity use estimator However, fitted with specialist emission control technology, air pollution can be controlled and reduced in line with environmental standards.

Two distinct systems have been developed to reduce emissions in-line with environmental targets: SCR and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Arkansas gas and oil commission Why then, with both SCR and EGR technology available to control emissions output, should decision makers in the marine industry opt for SCR? Ultimately, the preference comes down to a number of key technical advantages that SCR offers, meeting essential commercial needs in the marine sector.

SCR uses a urea-based diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) and a catalytic converter to reduce harmful NOx emissions. Electricity projects for grade 6 DEF is injected into the exhaust air stream, which contains NOx, a bi-product of engine combustion. V lab electricity The energy contained in hot exhaust gas causes the NOx to evaporate into ammonia. Us electricity hertz Once the ammonia and exhaust gas reaches the SCR catalyst it decomposes, breaking down into nitrogen gas and water vapour.

In comparison, EGR recirculates some of the exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders, reducing the oxygen content intake. Gas in chest While this lowers combustion temperatures and, consequently, generates less NOx, it is less efficient than SCR. Electricity word search printable Furthermore, in order to meet Tier 4 standards, a very large volume of EGR – often referred to as ‘massive’ EGR, or ‘MEGR’ – is required. Electricity merit badge worksheet answers This can significantly impact an engine’s efficiency and longevity, unless a range of technical countermeasures are introduced to counter these affects. Electricity billy elliot chords Yet these will only soften the impact, rather than eliminate these issues entirely.

Unlike other NOx reduction technologies, engines fitted with an SCR system will operate without interruption even in the event of SCR failure, or if the system runs out of DEF.

In the marine market – where long maintenance intervals, high reliability and optimum efficiency are absolutely paramount – SCR offers the better solution. Electricity towers in japan To date, SCR technology has proven itself on a variety of vessels in the marine sector, including ferries, tankers, container ships, icebreakers, cargo ships, workboats, cruise ships and naval vessels. Gas in back and stomach Finning supplies a comprehensive range of Cat, MaK and Perkins engines that have delivered proven and trusted results with SCR technology.

When specifying an SCR system, a key question that operators will have is, ‘How much DEF will be consumed?’ In short, this will depend on many factors, including the type of engine (whether it’s diesel-electric, propulsion or auxiliary), annual engine running hours, duty cycle and the concentration of DEF being used (32.5 per cent and 40 per cent concentrations of high-purity urea are available). Electricity prices per kwh 2013 It is recommended that operators work directly with an SCR specialist to determine the volume of DEF that will be consumed.

Only a pre-mixed solution of DEF from a trusted partner should be used in a SCR system, to guarantee the correct purity and concentration of urea. Electricity games The supplier should also be able to demonstrate the DEF has passed ISO 22241-1 standards, ensuring the appropriate standards for quality, handling, testing, transportation and storage have been met. Grade 9 electricity unit test answers Using DEF that has been incorrectly blended could potentially result in irreversible damage and, ultimately, engine failure.

An SCR system represents not only an opportunity to meet strict emissions requirements, but to also improve the efficiency of maritime ships, resulting in lower fuel consumption. Gaston yla agrupacion santa fe Most operators expect fuel consumption to increase if emissions are lowered. Tgas advisors company profile Interestingly, engine-out NOx and fuel consumption are inversely proportional, meaning the greater the engine-out NOx, the lower the volume of fuel consumed. Electricity icons free In most cases, the cost of DEF is more than offset by the engine’s reduction in fuel consumption, which is likely to be a key attraction to those considering an SCR system.

Reducing particulate matters is another concern for those keen to lower the environmental impact of diesel engines. Power outage houston today However, SCR technology has now been developed that ensures no additional after-treatment fittings such as diesel particulate filters or diesel oxidation catalysts are needed, as in-cylinder enhancements ensure particulate matter output is in-line with Tier 4 standards. Electricity voltage in germany This reduces total costs even further.

Many maintenance issues that are often highlighted in other NOx reduction technologies, such as the need to change fuel filters more frequently, are not a concern with SCR. Electricity worksheets ks1 These systems are also easy to install, a factor that has been raised by naval architects as being an important consideration when choosing emission control technology.

Versatile SCR systems have also been developed, allowing a range of different orientations when it comes to housing equipment. Electricity and circuits This is dependent on the ship installation and whether the kit is being installed in the stack or the engine room.

SCR offers an extensive range of benefits to those considering the emission control technologies available. Electricity vs magnetism venn diagram With air pollution regulations coming into full force this year through the International Maritime Organisation’s Tier III and EPA’s Tier 4 standards, there has never been a more appropriate time for operators to take advantage of SCR technology. Electricity 2pm lyrics Not only will it ensure emissions are controlled, but the cost benefits, engine performance and reduced maintenance issues guarantee upgrading to an SCR system makes good business sense too.