The right chemistry_ the real flintstones — were handy to have around _ montreal gazette

I grew up watching The Flintstones. Electricity physics pdf Watching the antics of that modern Stone Age family was a lot of fun, but it wasn’t until one of our rare ventures into the chemistry lab in high school that I gave a thought to the family’s name. Electricity and magnetism study guide 5th grade Mr. Gas line jobs in wv Cook showed us how to light a Bunsen burner with a “flintstone,” which, as he told us, was the way man first availed himself of fire. Electricity worksheets That provided a rationale for the choice of the family name, although the story about the flintstone being the first “fire starter” was incorrect.

There is much debate about when humankind had its first controlled use of fire, with estimates ranging from 400,000 to a couple of million years ago. A gas has no volume Producing the first practical flame likely involved carrying glowing embers from a natural fire started by lightning or by a volcanic eruption, keeping these smouldering by adding wood or animal fat, and finally adding dry tinder and blowing on the embers. Electricity off peak hours The first actual creation of fire likely relied on hand spinning a stick against another piece of wood to generate dust that would ignite by the heat produced by friction.

Then sometime during the Stone Age, upon fashioning tools out of stone, our ancestors noted that striking certain rocks against each other produced sparks. Gas variables pogil extension questions Flint is a variety of quartz, composed mainly of silicon dioxide, that can sport a variety of colours due to the inclusion of other minerals and is almost as hard as diamond. R gas constant chemistry Striking flint against an iron-containing rock, such as pyrites, will make sparks fly! These are glowing bits of iron that can start a fire on contact with easily combustible materials.

The technology was greatly improved during the Iron Age, when the heating of iron ore with charcoal yielded metallic iron, convertible into steel by alloying with carbon. Gas in babies treatment Sparks were produced much more readily when steel was struck against flint. Electricity 101 powerpoint Until the introduction of matches in the 19th century, the use of “flintstones” was the most common way to spark a fire. Electricity cost las vegas People carried “tinderboxes” that held a flint, a piece of steel, some dry matter such as scorched cloth or dried fungus, and a wooden splint tipped with sulphur. Gas zauberberg With a little experience, striking the flint with the steel and blowing the sparks onto the tinder produced a flame that would then ignite the splint, which was used to light a candle or kerosene lamp.

Early firearms featured a “flintlock” mechanism, with a piece of flint attached to a spring-loaded hammer that was released when the trigger was pulled. Electricity in water pipes The flint struck a piece of steel sending a shower of sparks into a small pan of gunpowder that ignited and touched off the main charge that had been packed into the barrel.

Although matches replaced tinderboxes, flintstones did not disappear. Electricity distribution network They are still used in cigarette lighters, and in strikers to safely light welding torches and, yes, Bunsen burners. On q gas station okc But what we now call flint isn’t really flint. Electricity units to kwh It is a man-made material called “ferrocerium” composed of iron, cerium, lanthanum and magnesium. Gas knife lamb Actually, it takes on the role of the steel, not the flint. List of electricity usage by appliances With traditional flint lighters, it is small particles of steel produced by striking against flint that ignite. Electricity billy elliot lyrics In this case, thanks to cerium’s low-ignition temperature, it is particles of the ferrocerium “flint” that are ignited when struck with a hard metal.

Today, such “flint” lighters are often included in emergency survival kits. Electricity word search puzzle A strip of ferrocerium is glued onto a small block of magnesium, a soft metal that burns with a hot flame. Gasbuddy trip The technique is to use a knife to shave off a small pile of magnesium flakes and then ignite these with sparks produces by rubbing the knife on the ferrocerium strip.

The advantage of this system is that, unlike with matches, wet magnesium will still burn. O goshi technique The bright light produced by burning magnesium came in handy during the early days of photography, when film was very insensitive. Mp electricity bill payment Special lamps that burned strips of magnesium came to be commonly used.

Large pieces of magnesium are actually difficult to ignite, so that there is no danger of a whole magnesium block bursting into flame. Gas bike alley But once magnesium does catch fire, it is extremely difficult to extinguish, burning even in the absence of oxygen since magnesium reacts with nitrogen in the air to form magnesium nitride.

Dousing with water just makes the situation worse because the metal reacts with water to produce combustible hydrogen gas. Electricity related words That makes magnesium useful for the construction of incendiary bombs. Electricity water hose analogy During the Second World War, German cities were engulfed by firestorms triggered by two-kilogram magnesium bombs set off by a “thermite” reaction within the bomb. Electricity formulas grade 9 Powdered aluminum, when combined with iron oxide, produces molten iron and a huge amount of heat, enough to ignite the magnesium casing. Electricity distribution losses Once aflame, the bomb set fire to everything in its path.

Where does magnesium come from? It is widely found in nature, although never in its elemental form. Emoji gas station It is at the heart of chlorophyll, the molecule that enables the capture of energy from the sun needed to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, which is then used by the plant to make a myriad of important compounds ranging from starch to DNA. Us electricity supply voltage Plants get the magnesium from the soil, where it occurs in the form of numerous minerals such as magnesium carbonate.

This mineral is also the source of much of the magnesium metal produced in the world by first heating it to produce magnesium oxide that then can be reduced to magnesium by reacting with silicon. Electricity dance moms song Sea water also contains vast amounts of extractable magnesium chloride. Electricity distribution costs Passing an electric current through molten magnesium chloride yields magnesium at the cathode and chlorine at the anode, basically the same process used by Humphry Davy in 1808 to isolate the first pure sample of magnesium.