The tribes sell off more land the 1905 agreement astrid y gaston lima menu prices


The loss of these two portions left a reservation of around 2.3 million acres, roughly bisected from northwest to southeast by the Big Wind River. Land south of the river was well watered by the many creeks and small rivers flowing off the Wind River Mountains, and most of the Indian people lived there. Land north of the river was much drier and used mostly for grazing. A great many of the animals that grazed it were owned by local white ranchers who didn’t pay for the privilege, or only recently had begun paying very low grazing fees to the tribes. [2]

At the same time, annual payments of food and supplies guaranteed to both tribes were about to stop coming. The Shoshone had signed the Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868 and the Arapaho had signed the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. Both treaties promised the tribes that signed them annuities for 30 years; the payments continued a few years longer as part of the tribes’ agreement to sell the hot springs in 1896.

In the first years of the 20th century, government officials of the U.S. Indian Bureau approached the tribes with a plan. gas in babies home remedies If the tribes agreed to sell the land north of the river, they would receive up-front cash payments, followed by future revenues that would pay for a new irrigation system for their lands south of the river, along with livestock, schools and water rights for the new irrigation system.

The government would finance the plan by turning development of a large irrigation project north of the river over to a private company. That project would theoretically attract settlers who would buy the recently ceded land. Revenue to the government from the land sales would then go to the tribal people as promised—and the whole arrangement could be worked out without any funds from the U.S. Treasury.

Washakie, longtime chief of the Eastern Shoshone and a very old man, died in 1900. Among the Arapaho, longtime chiefs Black Coal died in 1893 and Sharp Nose in 1901. Still at this time, the Arapaho had no formal, legal status for their presence on Wind River. The treaty they had signed in 1868 promised them a reservation of their own, but with no place specified for it; After ten years on the move, they were escorted to the Shoshone Reservation by the U.S. Army in an arrangement everyone had assumed to be temporary. But as time went on, government superintendents on Wind River continued to call meetings of leaders of both tribes together when it came time to discuss rations, land cessions, leases and more. And now, with the old men having died off, there were new leaders in both tribes.

In April 1904, James McLaughlin, the government negotiator with long experience among the Sioux who had negotiated the hot springs sale in 1896, returned to Wind River with the new government proposal. He urged the tribes, meeting jointly, to cede nearly 1.5 million acres of land, that is, about 2,300 square miles, north of Big Wind River. This would still leave them more than 800,000 acres south of the river, and should, the government officials said, bring them revenues of more than $2.2 million—around $62.5 million in 2018 dollars. In the long run, the tribes may only have gotten as much as $500,000—around $14.2 million today. [3]

Many of the tribal people felt they needed money more than they needed the land, and many of the leaders were ready to sign. One, however, held out. Lone Bear was now head council chief of the Northern Arapaho. He said the land was worth twice what McLaughlin was offering. Yellow Calf, not yet an Arapaho council chief, suggested some changes. Sherman Coolidge, a Northern Arapaho who had been raised by whites and educated in the East, and who had become an Episcopal priest and returned to the reservation as a missionary, spoke in favor of McLaughlin’s proposal.

• Individual tribal members who, thanks to the allotment system made possible by the Dawes Act, owned land on the ceded portions would be paid for it. The government would buy that land at $1.25 per acre in amounts up to 640 acres. In addition, the government would pay all Arapaho and Shoshone people $50 each—per capita—as soon as possible or within 60 days after the rest of the ceded lands were opened for sale to white homesteaders.

• From these revenues, the government, according to the agreement, would reimburse itself $85,000 for the per capita payments, $35,000 to cover the cost of surveying the ceded lands and $25,000 to start work on irrigation ditches for tribal lands south of the river. Revenue after that would flow to tribal accounts, from which the Indian Bureau would spend up to $50,000 for livestock and up to $50,000 for schools. Remaining funds could be spent on rations, if needed.

Lone Bear sent a message to Washington on March 6: “We think treaty ratified by Congress not agree with original treaty signed by tribe.” By “treaty” he was referring to the recent agreement; his point was that changes had been made in what he thought he had agreed to. Near the end of the next year, tribal elders protested that they still had not received any per capita payments nor any revenue from the sale of part of the ceded lands that had been sold as town lots in the new town of Riverton. electricity sources uk Town lots would naturally go for much higher prices per acre than agricultural homesteads.

When the per capita payments finally did come, the Indian Bureau withheld from many families the payments for children, apparently as a way to restrict the amount of cash flowing to families. Indians were too “indolent and imprudent,” bureau officials declared, to manage their own affairs. Per capita payments for the children would finally be approved in 1909. [7]

Ceded lands, in accordance with the agreement, were thrown open for homesteading the year after the tribes signed the document. That same year, 1906, the Chicago & North Western Railroad reached Lander, Wyo. from Casper. On the edges of the Shoshone Reservation, the towns of Shoshoni, Riverton and Hudson had been founded in 1905 and 1906. Families with high hopes began pouring in to homestead the supposedly soon-to-be-irrigated land north of the river.

An irrigation project of 300,000 acres was originally planned. electricity for beginners Homesteaders were attracted by low prices of $1.50 per acre. The state of Wyoming, which owns the water under Wyoming law, awarded the contract for the first two canals to a new company, the Wyoming Central Irrigation Company. The company offered water to the farmers for a fee, with plans to use those fees to continue building the irrigation system. The farmers balked, wanting to wait to pay fees until water was actually available to them. Lawsuits followed. Most of the original homesteaders simply left. [8]

Under the 1905 congressional act, proceeds from land sales north of the river were to go to the tribes partly to finance irrigation on newly allotted lands south of the river. When the sales of the ceded lands produced much less than the projected revenue, the tribes did not receive the expected amount of payment for those lands, nor did they receive the promised cattle or the ditches and water rights they had been expecting. [9]

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation finally stepped in to rescue the irrigation project in the 1920s—long after the tribes had given up their ownership of those lands. Diversion Dam on the Big Wind River was built in 1923, a power-generating reservoir in 1926, and a canal was begun around that time to carry water toward the lands north of the river.

Editors’ Note: This and other 2018 and 2019 articles and digital toolkits for classroom use on the history of tribal people in Wyoming are possible with support from the Wyoming Cultural Trust Fund, the Wyoming Council for the Humanities and several Wyoming school districts, including districts headquartered in Fort Washakie, Arapahoe, Shoshoni, Lander, Cody , Laramie, Douglas and Afton, Wyoming. extends its thanks to all. Resources

• Rea, Tom. “Peace, War, Land and a Funeral: The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.” Accessed Dec. 8, 2017 at Article takes the funeral of Mni-Akuwin, Spotted Tail’s daughter, as a place to begin telling the story of Lakota-white relationships surrounding the1868 Fort Laramie Treaty.

• “Wind River Treaty Documents. Treaties and Agreements Between the Eastern Shoshones and the United States.” Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum website on the Wind River Reservation. Includes commentary about and links to full texts of the Fort Bridger treaties of 1863 and 1868, plus the 1872 Brunot cession, the 1896 Big Horn Hot Springs cession and the Land cession of 1905. Accessed Dec. 12, 2017, at

The Wind River Indian Reservation is the primary site of most of John Roberts’s life and ministry. The reservation communities of Fort Washakie and Ethete are central to the story. Trout Creek Road, Fremont County 252, which turns southwest off US 287 at Fort Washakie, is the turnoff for the Roberts Mission and Sacagawea Cemetery. It is the continuation of the road from Ethete after it reaches U. S. 287. Hine’s Store, a gas station and convenience store, marks the junction. Travel west for about eight miles and you will come to the mission grounds located on the left. The historic Church of the Redeemer has been moved here, and the remains of the Shoshone Mission School for girls are also at this spot.

Also located there is the Chapel of the Holy Saint’s John, which was the chapel for the school. The log building behind the chapel also served as the Roberts family residence. The mission grounds today also contain the present Episcopal Church, known as Saint David’s, and a parish hall. The outbuildings and the old orchard remain from the days of the mission. electricity resistance questions A historic marker is located on the site. This is the 160-acre plot donated by Chief Washakie. If the chapel is open, note the baptismal font located in the doorway that was dedicated to Washakie. There is no charge, and there is rarely anyone at the site. Church services are held on Sunday, and visitors are more than welcome to attend.

Shortly after the turnoff to the mission on Trout Creek Road, there is a right hand turn. Take the turn and travel north to reach the Sacagawea Cemetery. It is on the left and can’t be missed. It is here that Sacagawea of Lewis and Clark fame is said to be buried. Her grave is prominently marked. This is the Shoshone tribe’s main burial ground and the graves speak for themselves. A recently dedicated statue honoring Sacagawea has been constructed on the north side of the cemetery. The old log structure off the parking area was once the original worship place for the Episcopal Church before John Roberts’s arrival. Visitors are welcome to visit the cemetery.

When in the agency headquarters of Fort Washakie, you can travel west for about a mile until you reach the old military cemetery on the right side of the road. This is the burial place of Chief Washakie. Other Shoshones are buried there as well, but the U. S. Army graves have since been removed. gas in back and stomach The Wind River Agency headquarters are located in Fort Washakie proper.

The final site to visit is in Ethete. Just south of the traffic light in the center of the community is Saint Michael’s Mission. The buildings are set out in a circle honoring Arapaho tradition. The post office is located in the circle as well as the “Our Father’s House” church. The church is a log structure with a picture window overlooking the Wind River Mountains. The Chapel of the Transfiguration in Jackson Hole was modeled after this building. Visitors are welcome at church services and may tour the building if there is anyone present.