Thermal power generation plant or thermal power station electricity facts label


Thermal power generation plant or thermal power station is the most conventional source of electric power. Thermal power plant is also referred as coal thermal power plant and steam turbine power plant. Before going into detail of this topic, we will try to understand the line diagram of electric power generation plant. Theory of Thermal Power Station

The theory of thermal power station or working of thermal power station is very simple. A power generation plant mainly consists of alternator runs with help of steam turbine. The steam is obtained from high pressure boilers. Generally in India, bituminous coal, brown coal and peat are used as fuel of boiler. The bituminous coal is used as boiler fuel has volatile matter from 8 to 33% and ash content 5 to 16%. To increase the thermal efficiency, the coal is used in the boiler in powder form.

In coal thermal power plant, the steam is produced in high pressure in the steam boiler due to burning of fuel (pulverized coal) in boiler furnaces. This steam is further supper heated in a super heater. This supper heated steam then enters into the turbine and rotates the turbine blades. The turbine is mechanically so coupled with alternator that its rotor will rotate with the rotation of turbine blades. After entering in turbine the steam pressure suddenly falls and corresponding volume of the steam increases.

After imparting energy to the turbine rotor the steam passes out of the turbine blades into the condenser. In the condenser the cold water is circulated with the help of pump which condenses the low pressure wet steam. This condensed water is further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water, it is again heated in high pressure.

• This condensed water is then further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water, it is then again heated in a high pressure heater where the high pressure of steam is used for heating.

The exhaust steam from the turbine is allowed to condense into water in steam condenser of turbine, which creates suction at very low pressure and allows the expansion of the steam in the turbine to a very low pressure. The principle advantages of condensing operation are the increased amount of energy extracted per kg of steam and thereby increasing efficiency and the condensate which is fed into the boiler again reduces the amount of fresh feed water.

The condensate along with some fresh make up feed water is again fed into the boiler by pump (called the boiler feed pump). In condenser the steam is condensed by cooling water. Cooling water recycles through cooling tower. This constitutes cooling water circuit.

The ambient air is allowed to enter in the boiler after dust filtration. Also the flue gas comes out of the boiler and exhausted into atmosphere through stacks. These constitute air and flue gas circuit. The flow of air and also the static pressure inside the steam boiler (called draught) is maintained by two fans called Forced Draught (FD) fan and Induced Draught (ID) fan.

Overall efficiency of steam power plant is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent of electrical output to the heat of combustion of coal. The overall efficiency of a thermal power station or plant varies from 20% to 26% and it depends upon plant capacity.

A thermal power station or thermal power plant has ultimate target to make business profit. Hence for optimizing the profit, the location of the station is much important factor. Power generation plant location plays an optimizing part in the economy of the station.

Obviously the location of thermal power station is best at the center of gravity of the load, but many times it is not possible to establish a thermal power plant at the CG of the load. Since normally CG point of the load may be at the heart of the city. So other points are to be considered to decide the best optimized location of the power plant.