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Generating lift will be difficult. Filling balloons with the lightest gasses, such as hydrogen and helium, will not work as the atmosphere is already composed of those same gasses. A ‘lighter than air’ balloon does not exist here! The problem is compounded by Jupiter’s gravity: 2.5G. This means that you would need to produce much more lift than on Earth.

The only solutions to generating lift would require the continuous use of energy: hot gasses are less dense than cold gasses, so something like a hot air balloon would work. gas after eating bread A quick calculation tells us that if we try to maintain the altitude where pressure is 1 bar (Earth’s sea level pressure) on Jupiter, the temperature is about 180 to 200K and density is 0.16kg/m^3. If we can heat up the air inside a hot air balloon to a blistering 450K (the maximum safe temperature of Kevlar), the density inside the balloon would be 0.08kg/m^3. This would provide a terrible lift to volume ratio of 1kg per 12.5m^3 of hot gas. In comparison, a helium balloon on Earth provides 1kg of lift per 0.9m^3. Even then, most of the lift capacity on Jupiter would be lost to the heavy insulation the balloon would require.

The other option would be mechanical lift: helicopter blades or wings. Obviously, these cannot be made large enough to support a large habitation base. With the Jovian atmosphere nearly eight times less dense than our atmosphere and with 2.5 times more gravity, an airplane would have to travel twenty times faster to take off, or require wings twenty times bigger and heavier.

This abundance of energy is crucial to solving one of the problems with living around Jupiter. Due to the gas giant’s strong gravitational field (equivalent to 2.56G), travelling between the moons is very expensive in terms of deltaV. For example, travelling between Callisto and Io requires 6km/s, and going from Io to Low Jupiter Orbit requires a whopping 11.8km/s. For comparison, going from Earth to Mars requires only 5.6km/s, and the distance travelled there is about 200 times greater.

The further you are from Jupiter, the cheaper it is to travel. Coincidentally, the further you are from Jupiter, the lower the radiation levels. This strongly favours concentrating industrial activity as far away from the gas giant as possible. Far-flung rocks such as Pasiphae, Megaclite or Sinope would become industrial centres, exchanging raw materials between them and only pushing finished goods down the gravity well to Callisto.

Strangely enough, it is cheaper to transport items to other planets than to send them to Low Jupiter Orbit and back. The only drawback is the time required to travel the huge distance that separates Jupiter from the rest of the solar system. On a Hohmann trajectory, a spacecraft will take over 2 years to reach Mars, and 2.6 years to reach Earth.

Overall, a Jovian colony is self-sufficient. It has vast amounts of water, ammonia and light elements available in the lunar ices. It has protection from radiation and has possible ‘warm’ environments under Europa’s ice and Callisto’s surface. There’s an abundance of metals and minerals in the countless smaller moons and rocks, providing a resource base for expansion limited only by how much electricity is being extracted from Io’s and Jupiter’s magnetospheres.

The only thing that the inhabitants of Jupiter’s moons would lack is heavy elements. These include Neodymium for magnets, Palladium for hydrogen chemistry and Uranium for nuclear reactors. It is unlikely that these elements remain in significant quantities around Jupiter, as the giant’s gravitational pull would have separated them from the lighter elements early in the moons’ formation.

Jupiter’s kinetic energy ‘exports’ take the form of small robots, under 100 grams. Micro-satellites, in essence, with miniature thrusters and accurate guidance systems. electricity news philippines Using the power network around Jupiter, they are accelerated away from Jupiter using laser beams, or simply shot in the right direction with a railgun. A minimum velocity of 13km/s is required.

The micro-satellites operate as kinetic impactors. They explode into a blast of high-velocity plasma when striking a target. This plasma can be redirected by a magnetic field to provide thrust. At 67.8km/s, the robots provide much more kinetic energy than they were initially provided with, making for a form of high efficiency and high specific impulse rocket. Streams of these impactors are shot down from Jupiter to skim the orbits of Mars, Venus and Earth. Spaceships ‘ride’ these streams towards their destinations. In return, they sell nuclear materials to Jovians.

Trade between Jupiter and the Inner Planets would become much more feasible once the energy market opens up. Jovian spaceships would have a choice between the free aerobraking around Venus or Earth, or the slightly closer Martian system. Inner Planet merchants would demand that rescue and recovery infrastructure be built in Low Jupiter Orbit, despite the exorbitant cost in deltaV, so that they too might skim the gas giant’s clouds for an extremely effective Oberth boost towards other destinations without fear of losing the payload.

A parallel tube would probably used to prospect for rock deposits, forming the basis for industrial activity. Callisto’s ice is littered with such deposits, which would provide the metals and minerals required to further expand the colony and build installations such as a mass driver, early solar panels (27m^2 is required for 1kW of output), rocket fuel refineries and so on.

The colony expands in three dimensions. Mining tubes can be closed and pressurized to become habitation spaces. gas works park Eventually, finding rock deposits will become harder and harder, requiring deeper tubes with impractical amounts of structural support. As the colonists would not have a large number of nuclear reactors, cheap melt-through methods of digging becomes impractical. This would be the colony’s first limitation: energy.

So, colonists would start shooting off electrodynamic tethers into orbit. These would transmit electricity back down to the surface, but they are quite inefficient in terms of resources spent over returns. It would be essential to make industrial production more efficient, and the tethers more productive. Both objectives can be solved by moving industrial activity to the furthest moons in the Jovian system. Electrodynamic tethers would have a greater gravitational potential energy to convert into electricity, and lower launch costs. gas in oil tank Industrial products require less deltaV to move, and might end up costing less than digging another kilometer through the ice.

Eventually, Io would have to be exploited. Orbital stations would capture the plasma stream through Magnetohydrodynamic effects, while surface-based installations use the large charge difference between the two faces of Io. These are transmitted by laser beam back to Callisto. The same laser beams can be used to propel spaceships. Efforts to exploit Jupiter’s magnetosphere could lead to an ‘artificial Io’ that shoots off a stream of ions and creates a second plasma torus focused on itself. It would be place in Low Jupiter Orbit, where the magnetic field is highest.

The other Galilean moons are unlikely to be colonized. Europa’s oceans could be inhabited as an extension of scientific research, or when Callisto is saturated (high population density creates too much heat to keep the ice stable) or simply if people prefer living underwater than in ice bubbles. Ganymede is large, but it resembles Callisto with more radiation and without the rocks.

By services, I mean expansion up and down the economic chain that links the consumer on Earth (or elsewhere) to the bare rock of a Jovian moon. It starts with extraction, initial processing, bulk transport to local refineries, intra-system transport to major transport hubs, interplanetary transport ect. A Jovian company that has access to cheap energy can decide to buy out intermediaries and improve its profit margin.

Transformation ties into the expansion of services. If you are transporting your own ore, it makes sense to build spaceships for yourself. electricity austin If you have spaceships, you can start offering passenger transport. Some might be tourists, who would be interested in luxury accommodation. Now Jovian mining corporations are running hotels in Low Earth Orbit. Why not start building farm-wheels? Why not open up your own genetics R&D for the next generation of space-grown food? These industries ‘transform’ the available resources into higher value products (spaceships, space stations, scientific data). It is not done on an energy-saving basis or even an economic basis, but on a financial one.

In other words, Jovian companies can move into research and tourism not because it is cheap to travel from Earth to Jupiter or because a laboratory on Callisto is more effective than on the Moon…. it is because the Jovian company can leverage the secure ‘primary industries’ into large, low-interest loans that fund high-profit margin ventures. Terran banks will want to lend to Jovians, the safe bet that is also growing rapidly, than to exhausted Terran companies.

Thanks again for your input. I need the magical gravity/inertia nullifiers because I want the ship to make 85% of c, and from what I’ve researched on predicted max velocities of nuclear space craft, fission reactions (except Orions) can make 3% – 5% of c at best, unless you’re using much heavier fissionables that run several atomic splits, Like element 106 that splits into carbon and plutonium then the plutonium splits. I called them stages, but I think it’s actually called a multiple generation reaction. Those can double your fission power output. Likewise with fusion,it supposedly tops out after making 60% to 65% of c. But hydrogen fusing into helium, then carbon, then oxygen, then magnesium can get you a lot more. Again, I called them stages when generations is probabley correct. But even usin both fission and fission multiple generational reactions together will not likely give me my 80% c.

Because Einstein said increasing power for greater speeds becomes exponential to the also increasing mass from the greater speeds. But if the mass were zero, then the available power should produce much greater speeds. The VASIMR is supposed to be very small in boosting, but more for cruising a stable speed with very slight increases over a long distance. I didn’t think it’s exhaust velocity is too low for near-lightspeed travel, but would hold whatever speed was reached. Fusion is of coarse the star of the show. I will rethink the VASIMR, and the gravity/inertia nullifiers if I can come up with a believable mix of fusion with fission. One thing I did forget is submersible propulsion, because the starship’s departure point is the bottom of Europa’a ocean. mp electricity bill pay indore Reply Delete