Type 99 tank – wikipedia gas leak smell

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The development of China’s domestic third generation MBT was started in 1989, under China’s eighth five-year plan. In the early 90’s China produced one of its second generation prototypes, the Type 90-II series. The Type 90-II was designed by studying the T-72 tank. [6] The chassis was to be based on the T-72’s hull but with Chinese subsystems. [7] The Type 90-II had a 125mm smoothbore cannon with an autoloader, modular composite armor and a centered driver position. [6] [8] While the Type 90-II series ultimately did not enter PLA service, it saw success as an export tank and was built under license in Pakistan as the Al-Khalid. [6] [9] [10]

The Type 98 or WZ-123 was China’s domestic Type 90-II derivative. [6] It was first seen in rehearsals for the 1999 National Day parade and was officially revealed on 1 October 1999. [11] [12] [13] [14] It sported a distinctive appearance with the hull and crew layout similar to the Russian T-72 but with a welded angular turret more similar to Western designs. [12] [13]

An updated Type 99 model was officially introduced at the 2015 Victory Day Parade as the Type 99A. [15] [16] This variant had previously been used by PLA troops during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) military exercises in 2014. [17] Although the PLA has not distinguished between this variant and older models, some sources have named this latest variant the Type 99A2. [4] [17] [18] [19] Deployment [ edit ]

By 2008, 200 Type 98 and Type 99 tanks may have been deployed to the Beijing and Shenyang Military Regions. [20] The Type 99 has seen less deployment than other tanks in PLA service due to cost factors. [8] [21] Design [ edit ] Armament [ edit ]

The main armament is a 2-plane stabilized 125 mm smoothbore gun with a carousel-style autoloader. The gun may be fired under both computerized and manual control. The tank can carry 42 rounds including 22 in the autoloader. The rate of fire is 8 rounds per minute using the autoloader, and 2 rounds per minute with manual loading. [22] The Type 99A mounts an improved 125 mm gun. [23]

The 125 mm gun of the Type 99 is capable of firing APFSDS-T, HEAT, Frag-HE-T, and gun-launched anti-tank missiles (ATGM). The gun may fire a range of Chinese, Russian, and ex-Warsaw Pact ammunition. The Type 99 can fire tandem shaped charged ATGMs similar to the Russian Invar with a range of up to 5 kilometres. [22] In 1998 the 9M119 ATGMs were approved for domestic license production by Russia.

The Type 99 has hunter-killer capabilities, operating an ISFCS-212 fire control system with an IR automatic target tracker. [22] It is capable of firing on the move with a stabilized gunner’s thermal sight and laser range finder. The gunner has a maximum target acquisition range of 5 kilometres. [22] The gunner’s thermal sight has optical magnification at 5x and 11.4x. [7]

The Type 99A MBT is equippped with the improved 1A45T Fire Control System including new generation of thermal imaging scope, new ballistic computer and weather measurement sensors, thus improve the ballistic trajectory under adversary conditions. The commander also has an independent panoramic sight that can rotate 360 degrees. Both gunner and commander sight is fully stabilized and capable of day/light operations. [2] Protection [ edit ]

The tank’s welded turret is of an angular design with spaced modular armor and composite panels. [8] [22] The frontal protection is comparable to the M1 Abrams. [22] Applique armor consists of modular armor mentioned above and track skirts. The Type 99A2 may mount 3rd generation ( Relikt-type) ERA. [23] It has a nuclear-biological-chemical protection system. [3] The storage baskets on the turret sides and rear are buffer spaces, and are protected by ERA. [2] Mobility [ edit ]

The driver sits in the center front of the hull. The suspension system consists six rubber tired road wheels on each side with power sprocket at the rear. The first, second and sixth road wheels are fitted with special hydraulic shock-buffer. [2] The Type 99 tank is powered by a 1500 hp diesel engine giving it a power-to-weight ratio of about 27.78 hp/ton. The original Type 99 had a manual transmission but later Type 99A variants have a semi-automatic transmission with six forward gears and one reverse gear. [7] [16] [24] The maximum road and off-road speeds are 80 km/h and 60 km/h respectively. The cruising range is 500 km. [3] Counter Measures [ edit ]