Up_ california dreamin’_ new locomotives take clean air tech from theory to reality

With the Evolution Series, GE met the standard, producing a locomotive that ultimately reduces emissions by more than 70 percent vs. Electricity bill nye worksheet their previous best Tier 3 locomotive.

To give you an idea just how clean these locomotives are, Tier 4s produce more than 90 percent less particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen (collectively known as NOx, a major ingredient in producing smog and ozone) than locomotives produced 15 years ago.

It’s a big deal, especially in California, which has some of the worst air quality and some of the most stringent environmental standards in the country.

“We all have in our history the seeing a train going down the track, right?” asked Larry Greene, who heads the Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District, one of the larger districts in California. Gas density of air “Well, you can be assured that what’s coming out of the stack is even cleaner than you can imagine.” The ABCs of DEF and ERG

What makes GE’s Evolution Series locomotives even more impressive is how they reduce emissions. Gas laws When Tier 4 standards loomed on the regulatory horizon in 2008, railroads were concerned about manufacturers using an emissions control system that required use of Diesel Exhaust Fluid — or DEF.

All heavy-duty over-the-road truck engines in service since 2010 use an after-treatment technology called Selective Catalytic Reduction, which mixed DEF with the engine’s exhaust gases. Electricity kwh The urea chemical in DEF mixes with the NOx and breaks it down, forming harmless nitrogen gas, a small amount of carbon dioxide and water.

“The next time you see a new large diesel truck, take a look either below or just behind the cab. Wd gaster cosplay tutorial You’ll see a tank with a light-blue cap,” said Union Pacific’s Mike Iden, general director-Car & Locomotive Engineering, who in addition to leading Union Pacific’s locomotive technology efforts has a unique flair for explaining the most technical subject matter. Electricity wiki “That tank holds the DEF. Gas cap code If GE had used a similar after-treatment system as trucks do, there would have been an equivalent reservoir on board the locomotive.”

Iden said Union Pacific would have had to find a way to supply millions of gallons of the DEF and a process to ensure locomotives never run out of it. Gas utility “If you’ve got a locomotive designed to have DEF fluid in use and the tank runs dry, legally you have to shut the locomotive down, you can’t run it,” he said. Electricity bill cost per month It would have meant an added layer of infrastructure and maintenance costs.

“You take about 10 percent the exhaust coming out of the locomotive’s engine, you clean it to remove particulate matter, you cool it, and then you pump it right back into the engine,” Iden explained. Gaston y astrid lima “It’s kind of like breathing partially into a paper bag. Gas nozzle keeps stopping Every time you exhale and breathe back in you breathe less oxygen. Gas vs electric oven cost By recirculating some of the locomotive’s exhaust gases that are cooled and cleaned, you’re reducing the output of NOx.”

That’s not the only thing happening under the new locomotive’s hood. When was gas 99 cents in california Iden said GE’s fuel injection system reduces particulate matter formation to meet Tier 4 requirements. Gas leak los angeles california GE’s Challenges and Risks

Peters said GE’s investment in developing the Tier 4 locomotive was “north of $600 million.” The company, which was co-founded by Thomas Edison a couple decades after President Abraham Lincoln created Union Pacific, took a NASA-like approach to organizing the engineering effort needed to make breakthroughs.

“We set up mission-based teams with key leaders from different initiatives and literally pushed them together in the same room day after day,” Peters said. Gas stoichiometry worksheet answers “It helped us move faster. Electricity magnetism and light Whether it was service issues in the field as we launched our pre-production locomotive or when we moved into production, working so closely together allowed us to solve engineering challenges quickly.” The Customer Connection

GE’s customers also played an important role in development. E payment electricity bill up Peters said GE spent time with all seven North American Class 1 railroads “to understand their needs and priorities, but also as we were thinking through the design.”

And, of course, the railroads helped drive the testing process. Gasbuddy near me Iden said Union Pacific put five GE Tier 4 test units through rigorous workouts. Gas efficient suv 2013 “We ran them in Powder River Basin coal service; we made sure they were run up over Donner Summit through Tunnel 41,” Iden said, describing the iconic railroad landmark. Electricity history facts “We ran them along the Sunset Route across the desert — high speed, low speed, just a whole battery of running criteria.”

GE delivered Union Pacific’s first production Tier 4 locomotives in November 2015. Gastroparesis They looked almost like the Tier 3 units in which they were based, but inside were the biggest advancements in locomotive design in decades.

“They took the previous Tier 2 and Tier 3 Evolution engine and stretched it, making it 14 inches longer,” Iden said. Electricity demand “The Tier 4 has two turbo chargers instead of one because of the exhaust gas recirculation. Gas vs electric water heater cost per year For this size engine, it has the largest cooling system GE has ever put on a single engine of a locomotive. Tgask It’s all part of their recipe for reducing NOx and particulate matter.”

Iden said the new Tier 4s have more waste heat coming out of the radiators than coming out of the exhaust stack — “the complete opposite of the older Tier models” — an indicator of the radically cooler combustion process.

“It’s a more complex locomotive,” Iden said of the GE Tier 4, “but that’s what you get with these kinds of improvement initiatives. T gas terengganu And the more complex you make something, the more unreliable it can be. Electricity 220v That’s always a challenge for the locomotive manufacturer that designs and builds the locomotive, and for the railroad that will operate and maintain that locomotive for the next several decades.”

So far, the new units have been getting good grades from the mechanics. Gas quality by brand “In terms of reliability, the GE Tier 4s are performing very well,” Iden said.

As for the crews behind the controls of these new locomotives, Iden said they won’t see any significant change in how the Tier 4s operate compared to other Tier models, and that’s by design.

“One of our goals is to have a transparent transition from model to model,” Iden said. Electricity questions for class 10 “You don’t want the engineer or the conductor to have to operate radically differently than they did with the older models.” California Dreamin’

A large number of the Tier 4 units operate on Union Pacific’s mountainous and heavy-grade “I-5 corridor” between Los Angeles, Sacramento, Portland and Seattle/Tacoma, helping the railroad reduce its environmental impact in southern and central California, the greater Los Angeles area and through California’s Central Valley.

For California, Union Pacific’s GE Tier 4 locomotive deployment is the logical next step in a decades-long effort to strike a balance between regulatory requirements and the railroads’ efforts to operate the cleanest fleet they can while at the same time meeting safety and business requirements, said Kirk Marckwald, founder and principal of California Environmental Associates. Electricity generation efficiency Marckwald has spent nearly 20 years working with regulators, community groups and the railroads to fashion reduction programs around locomotive emissions.

“One of the biggest challenges has been getting regulators to understand there’s a difference between a technology that is theoretically available and a proven technology that is ready to meet the railroads’ operating environment and safety requirements,” Marckwald said. O gascon “I wouldn’t say it’s a struggle, but it’s a really important piece to get right.”