Us climate report spells out coming challenges to industry static electricity examples

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Climate change is leading to increasingly severe weather and disasters, including wildfires and flooding. chapter 7 electricity and magnetism The 2017 Tubbs Fire (left) caused an estimated $1.2 billion in damages and destroyed more than 5,000 structures, including 5% of the housing stock in Santa Rosa, Calif. natural electricity examples Hurricane Harvey in 2017 caused widespread flooding and knocked out power to 300,000 customers in the area of Port Arthur, Texas (right). | U.S. electricity estimated bills Air National Guard

“The impacts of climate change are already being felt in communities across the country,” the report begins. “More frequent and intense extreme weather and climate-related events, as well as changes in average climate conditions, are expected to continue to damage infrastructure, ecosystems and social systems that provide essential benefits to communities.”

“This report makes it clear that climate change is not some problem in the distant future,” said Brenda Ekwurzel, the director of climate science for the Union of Concerned Scientists and one of the report’s authors. “It’s happening right now in every part of the country. gas water heater reviews 2013 When people say the wildfires, hurricanes and heat waves they’re experiencing are unlike anything they’ve seen before, there’s a reason for that, and it’s called climate change.”

“The report is largely based on the most extreme scenario, which contradicts long-established trends by assuming that, despite strong economic growth that would increase greenhouse gas emissions, there would be limited technology and innovation, and a rapidly expanding population,” White House Deputy Press Secretary Lindsay Walters said in a statement.

As with other sectors’ infrastructure, energy facilities across the U.S. are threatened, though in different ways depending on the region. electricity and magnetism quiz questions Structures along the country’s coasts are threatened because of rising sea levels. chapter 7 electricity test Increased precipitation will lead to flooding in the Northeast and Midwest, while drought in the West will lead to lower snowpack levels and, thus, reduced hydroelectric capacity.

“Most U.S. power plants, regardless of fuel source (for example, coal, natural gas, nuclear, concentrated solar and geothermal), rely on a steady supply of water for cooling, and operations are projected to be threatened when water availability decreases or water temperatures increase,” the report says. Some plants would potentially need to shut down until their water cools enough to comply with federal discharge temperature regulations.

The reports notes that two major trends in the industry — increased reliance on natural gas and increasing penetration of renewables — provide diversity and flexibility. gas weed strain But reduced water availability will also affect fracking capability, as “during droughts, hydraulic fracturing and fuel refining operations will likely need alternative water supplies (such as brackish groundwater) or to shut down temporarily.”

It also notes that while most service interruptions are caused by transmission and distribution line outages, increased fuel supply disruptions could also affect reliability. “Coal facilities typically store enough fuel on-site to last for 30 days or more, but extreme cold can lead to frozen fuel stockpiles and disruptions in train deliveries,” the report says. “Capacity challenges on existing pipelines, combined with the difficulty in some areas of siting and constructing new natural gas pipelines, along with competing uses for natural gas such as for home heating, have created supply constraints in the past.”