Us government knew climate risks in 1970s, national petroleum council documents show – nationofchange electricity cost by state


The documents obtained by Climate Liability News show how much the National Petroleum Council (NPC), an oil and natural gas advisory committee to the Secretary of Energy, knew about climate change as far back as the 1970s. A series of reports illuminate the findings of government-contracted research that outlined the dangers associated with increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere.

“These documents reaffirm that, to one extent or another, the fossil fuel industry as a whole has known for decades about the basics of climate change and its implications. But rather than warning the public and taking action, many gas in oil briggs and stratton engine of them turned around and orchestrated anti-science, anti-policy denial campaigns dwarfing even those of Big Tobacco,” said Geoffrey Supran, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard who has extensively studied those denial campaigns.

Many of the documents were compiled by Hugh MacMillan, then a senior researcher on water, energy and climate issues for Food Water Watch, an environmental nonprofit. He was preparing to file a public comment to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in response to the Trump Administration’s plan to replace the Clean Power Plan. MacMillan compiled archived NPC

“I wanted to educate myself on the evolution of rhetoric on climate change within the federal energy policy making apparatus. The archived NPC reports chronicle that evolution – from early acknowledgment of the potential for an ecological crisis, to acceptance of the notion of carbon budgets, to deploying de-regulation in the decades since,” said MacMillan, who no longer works for Food Water Watch.

“This illustrates that the National Petroleum Council’s failure to advocate for bold government action to avoid the worst effects of climate change and to facilitate a transition to a low-carbon economy hasn’t been based on ignorance of the problem,” said electricity demand Kathy Mulvey, accountability campaign director of the Union of Concerned Scientists’ climate energy program.

years, the companies still have plans to expand oil production in the U.S. In a presentation at the 2018 U.S. Energy Information Administration Conference, Plains All American Pipeline, a company that recently joined forces with ExxonMobil, outlined the ways in which the U.S. oil industry is thriving. The presentation states that continental U.S. oil production peaked in 1970 but is, “likely to equal or exceed initial peak in 2020.” Exposing industry-wide knowledge, potential liability The two leading members of “The Yes Men” pose as Exxon oil executives with the National Petroleum Council shortly after pulling a stunt at the Oil and Gas Expo in 2007 in Calgary, Alberta. Credit: ItzaFineDay, CC BY 2.0

The National Petroleum Council (NPC) membership lists include now-former chairmen, presidents and chief executives of at least eight oil companies including Texaco, Marathon Oil, Conoco and Phillips, which have since merged, and Occidental Petroleum Corporation. The documents i feel electricity in my body show that the knowledge was widespread in the industry, and not just limited to individual companies like ExxonMobil and Shell, whose internal files have been uncovered in a series of journalistic investigations that gas station in spanish show their longtime understanding of the risks of climate change. That the knowledge was widespread could affect the dozens of climate liability suits that have been filed against the industry by various communities around the country.

The document, titled “ Energy supply and demand implications of CO2,” clearly outlines the conclusion by researchers that action must be taken to reduce fossil fuel use in order to curb CO2 emissions: “Use of fossil fuels should peak and start to decline within the next several decades, possibly as early as 2010. Explicit actions to retard fossil-fuel use would need to become effective in the next 10–20 yr.” A more concise statement opens the report: “Intensive development of non-fossil energy sources appears warranted.”

“The world’s remaining recoverable resources of oil, gas, and coal are k gas oroville estimated to contain nearly 4,000 billion metric tons of carbon,” the report said. “This is enough, if burned and if half of the emitted carbon dioxide remains airborne, to increase the concentration of CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere by nearly a factor of four. That is almost certainly too much. ‘Acceptable’ levels of CO2 may be no more than 1.5 to 2.5 times the present concentration. Thus, the world’s cumulative use of fossil fuels, at least during the next two centuries, may need to be restricted to levels far below the estimated recoverable resources.”

Earth’s temperature has already risen by one degree Celsius and scientists have recently reduced their estimate – from two degrees to 1.5 degrees Celsius – for the maximum amount the planet can warm by the end of this century if we are to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. Although the Oak Ridge National Laboratory report illustrates the U.S. federal government was made aware of this in 1982, the nation has opted out of the Paris Agreement which outlines a coordinated global effort to reduce greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation.

Playing naive to the fossil fuel industry’s contributions to climate change is not the only tactic the c gastronomie traiteur avis new documents help clarify. Some reports, such as a 1981 report titled The Oil and Gas Industries: An Overview , claimed fossil fuel pollution had been mitigated: “The petroleum industry has made substantial progress in environmental conservation in the past decade, and the major environmental concerns perceived in the 1970’s as arising from the industry are now vastly diminished because pollution sources are under effective control.”

One 1983 document underscores how the NPC recognized the importance of controlling what information reached lawmakers. “While the CO2 issue remains – appropriately so, in our view – largely in the research communality, it is important to consider the possibility that the issue may become prominent in political arenas,” the report said. “It is important that we fashion perspectives and programs that can be sustained through periods of excessive attention or inattention to the issue.”

Another document acknowledged that climate change had long been the focus of discussions among oil industry representatives, and that burning fossil fuels would likely contribute to “catastrophic climate changes” that could be mitigated by tighter regulation: “The reason that the subject continues to cause debate and to stimulate research is that it is so very closely tied to the world energy gas house gorillas problem. If fossil fuel combustion is the major cause of increasing atmospheric CO2, if the increasing CO2 content will result in large or possibly catastrophic climate changes, and if natural constraints are either inadequate or too slow to keep the situation stable, then action must be initiated fairly soon to reduce the discharge of CO2 into the atmosphere.”