Using bacteria to produce electricity, treat wastewater _ asu now_ access, excellence, impact

Chemical engineering professor César Torres is exploring this possibility through research in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), supported in large part by a $1.9 million grant from the Department of Defense.

Specifically, MFCs contain anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) that can produce electricity when electrons from wastewater organics are transferred to an anode.

“In this system organic compounds can be removed from water, while electrical current is simultaneously produced,” said Torres, who earned his doctorate in environmental engineering from ASU in 2009.

The electrical current in MFCs is used to produce hydrogen peroxide — a powerful oxidant that can then be reused to treat and disinfect wastewater.

“This oxidant is rarely used in wastewater treatment because of its high cost, but MFCs allow on-site hydrogen peroxide production using energy from wastewater,” said Torres.

This reliable and energy-efficient wastewater treatment option is of special interest to the U.S. Arkla gas phone number armed forces in order to avoid the costs and risks normally associated with water transport in remote locations.

Torres (pictured above in the Torres Lab) is conducting this research in conjunction with Bruce Rittmann, a Regents’ Professor in the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment at ASU and director of the Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology in the Biodesign Institute, and Konstantinos Tsakalis, an electrical engineering professor in ASU’s School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering in the Ira A. Electricity deregulation in california Fulton Schools of Engineering.

An effort to better understand the mechanisms that allow ARB to produce electrical currents is supported by a $450,000 grant. Gas x and pregnancy Rachel Yoho, a biological design doctoral student in the Torres Lab, is leading this portion of the research and focuses specifically on identifying key proteins used in ARB.

An additional $400,000 grant supports efforts to study the use of MFCs as power sources for sensors at the bottom of the ocean that collect oceanic data (like temperature and oceanic current flows) critical to efficient navigation.

These sensors require a self-sustainable power supply since a battery charge is not feasible — a problem the U.S. 8 gases Navy has worked on for nearly a decade.

“MFCs produce low power densities, but enough to power sensors in remote locations where a continuous supply of fuel is possible due to the organic compounds found in nature,” Torres said.

Torres is also leading an effort to better understand microbial processes in municipal wastewater sludge treatment through the use of ARB. Electricity font generator This sludge refers to the contaminant by-products that come from wastewater treatment processes.

Microbial respiration can be measured in combination with electrical currents in MFCs, which provides insights into the microorganism’s behavior.

This allows the MFC to become an analytical tool for measuring the rate at which ARB respire, providing a more accurate and time-sensitive measurement of microbial processes related to hydrolysis than the current methods based on measuring methane gas production.

With these measurements Torres aims to develop comprehensive hydrolysis models that can better predict treatment in current and upcoming technologies.

The research is funded with a $333,000 grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and led by Torres and Steven Hart, an environmental engineering doctoral student in the Torres Lab and recipient of an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

Torres’ efforts to understand the role of microbes in producing electrical currents have opened up a novel way to interface chemical energy and electrical energy.

“There are many applications envisioned within the field of microbial electrochemistry, yet there are many aspects of these microorganisms that we do not yet understand,” Torres said.

“In fully connected groups, the individuals’ propensity to learn from successful cultural models, a common strategy that allows us to copy efficient solutions from others, quickly reduced the diversity of solutions. Hair electricity song Partially connected groups are more likely to produce diverse solutions, allowing them to innovate further by combining different solutions,” said Derex, a postdoctoral researcher with the Institute of Human Origins The Institute of Human Origins is a unit in the School of Human Evolution and Social Change, within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences..

In an experiment where participants were placed in groups tasked with trying to produce a virtual remedy to stop the spread of a virus, none of the members of a group constantly allowed to observe solutions produced by their group members were able to discover the most complex innovations. Z gas el salvador numero de telefono Meanwhile, 58 percent of the members of a partially connected group — where they could only observe solutions of people in their subset — were able to craft successful innovations.

The results show that partial isolation is a strong driver of cultural diversity and that larger and more connected populations do not necessarily exhibit higher cultural complexity. Electricity was invented in what year However, Derex and Boyd warn that small and isolated groups might be exposed to higher rates of cultural loss, suggesting that an optimal level of connectedness probably balances cultural loss and cultural diversity.

“Our results suggest that increased contact as human populations spread across the world could have been important in the explosion of new technologies that appears at the same time,” said Rob Boyd, research affiliate with ASU’s Institute of Human Origins and Origins Professor in the School of Human Evolution and Social Change.

About 60,000 years ago, humans emerged from Africa and rapidly spread across the globe. Electricity icon Technology played a critical role in that process, because it allowed humans to thrive in habitats for which they are poorly suited biologically. Electricity 2pm live The results of Derex and Boyd’s study suggest that contacts between previously isolated groups could have brought different skills and cultural traits together and may have led to periods of sudden leaps in cultural accumulation, and the resulting technologies may have helped early humans to quickly adapt to new environments.